Women are considered smokers if they reported smoking at least one cigarette daily during any trimester of pregnancy.
Because of states’ transition to a new revision of the birth certificate, no complete national-level data are available from 2003 through 2015; for those years, we report on the aggregate data from states using the most prevalent revision.
Data from the two versions are not comparable because the 1989 revision asks a simple yes/no question, whereas the 2003 version asks about amount of smoking in each trimester of pregnancy.
Data through 2006 reflect only those jurisdictions that had not yet adopted the 2003 certificate revision. Data for 2007 forward include only those jurisdictions that have adopted the 2003 certificate revision. Although New York State began using the 2003 revision in 2004, New York City continued to use the 1989 revision until 2008. For details on this change, see http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vital_certificate_revisions.htm. For a list of states that did not adopt the 2003 revision prior to 2016, see the “Births: Final data” National Vital Statistics Reports, released annually.
Child Trends. (2018). Mothers who smoke while pregnant. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/mothers-who-smoke-while-pregnant.
1. Monitoring data on maternal smoking during pregnancy is complicated by changes over time in the standard birth certificate used by states. The U.S. standard birth certificate, the source for these data, was revised in 2003; however, states adopted it only gradually. Data from states using the older (1989) revision yield data that are not strictly comparable with data derived from the 2003 revision due to differences in the way the maternal smoking question was asked. See Definition section for more details.
2. Hispanic mothers may be of any race.
3. Estimates by maternal education for mothers who smoke while pregnant include only mothers aged 20 or older.