State and local estimates
• State estimates for fertility rates and number of births by selected demographic characteristics for 2016 are available from Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Osterman, M. J. K., Driscoll, A. K., & Drake, P. (2018). Births: Final data for 2016 [Tables 1, 5, I-26]. National Vital Statistics Reports, 67(1). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_01.pdf.
• Birth and fertility rates in greater demographic detail are available, by state, from Trends in Characteristics of Births by State: Sutton, P. D. & Mathews, T. J. (2004). Trends in characteristics of births by state: United States, 1990, 1995, and 2000–2002 [Table 3]. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52(19). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr52/nvsr52_19acc.pdf.
• International crude birth rates and total fertility rates** are available from Kaneda, T. & Bietsch, K. (2015). 2015 World Population Data Sheet. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf15/2015-world-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf.
**Note: The international definitions of crude birth rates and total fertility rates differ substantially from the birth rates and fertility rates referenced in this indicator. For this reason, these international estimates are not comparable to the estimates presented here. Crude birth rates are defined as births per 1,000 total population (including all ages and races, and both genders). Total fertility rates are defined as the average number of children a woman would have if the current age-specific birth rates did not change during her childbearing years (usually ages 15 to 49). For more details about these definitions, please see the publication listed above.
• International total fertility rates are also available from the United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization. Available online at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/products/vitstats/seratab3.pdf.