Nine adverse experiences are included in this indicator. These were adapted from the earlier ACEs research for use in a survey where parents are the reporters about their child. For each item, parents are asked to respond whether the focal child “ever” had the experience.
- Economic hardship (if experienced “somewhat” or “very” often)
- Divorce/separation of a parent
- Death of a parent
- A parent served time in jail
- Witness to adult domestic violence
- Victim of or witness to neighborhood violence
- Living with someone who was mentally ill or suicidal
- Living with someone who had an alcohol or drug problem
- Being treated or judged unfairly due to race/ethnicity
All references to parents refer exclusively to parents who lived with the child. Economic hardship was excluded in comparisons based on poverty level.
 The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health (www.childhealthdata.org). cautions against making comparisons of 2016 NSCH data with data from earlier years, because the survey methodology underwent a major redesign for 2016.
 When comparing adverse experiences by poverty level, frequent economic hardship is excluded as an adverse experience, to compare children independent of that hardship.
 Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremmer, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C., Perry, B. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256, 174-186.
Child Trends. (2019). Adverse experiences. Available at: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=adverse-experiences