The devastation caused by hurricanes can be overwhelming to anyone, but poses unique challenges for children. Compared to adults, children suffer more from exposure to disasters—including psychological, behavioral, and physical problems, as well as difficulties learning in school.
While a nationally representative study found that 14 percent of children in the United States (ages 2–17 years) have experienced a disaster, most will never have direct experience. However, even those who hear about a disaster or see images on television may show symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Psychological impacts on children are particularly likely to reverberate after a disaster.
Children’s reactions to hurricanes differ—some exhibit little distress, others have short-term difficulties, and still others struggle with long-term mental health problems. In most cases, children’s negative responses to disasters decrease over time. For example, 2–3 years after Katrina, more than 72 percent showed signs of resilience or recovery. How children respond to disasters is influenced by several factors, including their individual experiences, age and stage of development, reactions of parents and other caregivers, previous exposure to trauma, and the presence of other risk and protective factors in their lives.
Helping children and caregivers cope with hurricanes and other disasters.
There are many excellent resources to help children recover from hurricanes and other natural disasters (see below). Several common themes emerge from these resources and other research:
The last point about reminding children about hope and goodness may receive less attention, but it is critically important. Stories to share with children are numerous—after Harvey landed in Texas, restaurant employees used kayaks to deliver free pizzas to people without food, people formed a human chain to save an elderly man from flood waters, and an animal advocacy organization reunited pets with their owners. As former President Jimmy Carter said in Harvey’s aftermath, “When the waters rise, so do our better angels … Pick a past disaster, and I’ll tell you at least a dozen stories that stand as living testaments to our collective compassion, generosity—and unity.”
Our hearts go out to the many people impacted by hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and to those who have previously endured a disaster or are bracing for one in the future.
Helpful resources for children and caregivers