Positive Indicators Project



Having the capacity and propensity to use time and money efficiently and to display restraint so that one can reach a short or long term goal or purpose.

  • Efficient use of time
  • Efficient use of money
  • Restraint in acquiring goods and services
  • (Using time and money efficiently) to reach a short or long term goal

Parent Scale

Please indicate how much these statements describe your child. (Not at all like my child, A little like my child, Somewhat like my child, A lot like my child, Exactly like my child)

  • My child knows how to manage his/her time
  • My chIld buys things even though he/she knows they are too expensive for him/her.
  • There are things my child puts off buying today so he/she can save for tomorrow
  • My child is careful about how he/she spends his/her money.

Parent Scale Psychometric Properties and Fit Indices

We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine whether responses to the scale appeared to measure a single construct. Along with Cronbach’s alpha, we present model fit indices below.


  • Alpha=0.76 (good)
  • CFI=1.000 (excellent)
  • TLI=1.001 (excellent)
  • RMSEA=0.000 (excellent)

Adolescent Scale

Please indicate how much these statements describe you. (Not at all like me, A little like me, Somewhat like me, A lot like me, Exactly like me)

  • I know how to manage my time.
  • I buy things even though I know they are too expensive for me.
  • There are things I don’t buy today so I can save for tomorrow.
  • I am careful about how I spend my money.

Adolescent Scale Psychometric Properties and Fit Indices


  • Alpha=0.72 (good)
  • CFI=0.999 (excellent)
  • TLI=0.998 (excellent)
  • RMSEA=0.037 (excellent)

Subgroup Model Fit

We tested the final adolescent and parent models with subgroups to examine whether the model fit for different subsets of respondents in the same manner as the overall sample. Using the same fit statistic requirements as the overall models, a check mark indicates that the model fit for the subgroup. Due to relatively small sample sizes and sparse categorical responses, resulting in many bivariate empty cells, we were not able to fit all of the models. The subgroups for which we were not able to fit a model are indicated with N/A. Household income is defined as “low” if it is less than the median income in the sample.  “High” household income indicates that the household income was equal to or greater than the sample’s median.


Concurrent Validity

Four single item measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the adolescent scale: a measure of social behavior (fighting), a measure of health behavior (smoking), a measure of emotional health (adolescent-reported depressive symptoms), and a measure of cognitive development (grades).

Concurrent validity was examined in two ways: with bivariate and multivariate analyses. The table below presents the results of multivariate analyses, which control for: teen gender, teen age, teen race, household income, household size, parental education, parental marital status, parental home ownership, parental employment, and metropolitan area and region of residence. The beta coefficient of the relationship between the construct’s scale and outcome is presented.


The graphs below show the bivariate relationships between the adolescent scale and outcomes.  Results are presented for relationships that were at least moderately significant (at the 0.10 level) in the multivariate analyses. Note that the y axis scales are different in each graph.