Mar 19, 2013


The SNAP™ ORP is a community-based cognitive behavioral intervention designed to help children under age 12 who are police-involved or at risk of being police-involved as a result of serious behavioral difficulties.  Children and their parents participate in the multi-component program, which aims to prevent future antisocial behavior.  An experimental evaluation of the program has reported significant positive impacts on child delinquency and aggression after three months.


Target Population:  
 Families of children under age 12 who have had, or who are at risk of having, police contact as a result of engaging in antisocial activities

SNAP™ ORP is a manualized 12-week community-based program designed to reduce antisocial behaviors in children at high-risk for developing conduct disorder.  The program teaches children and parents emotion regulation, communication, and problem-solving strategies that improve social competencies and management of child behaviors.  Core components include a weekly Children’s Club group and a Parenting Group, which are supplemented by one-on-one family counseling sessions, Individual Befriending that connects children with structured community activities, and academic tutoring depending on unique treatment needs.  Developers advise that costs of the program may differ by community, but typical expenses are listed on the website (see sources for more information below for the link).


Augimeri, L. K., Farrington, D. P., Koegl, C. J., & Day, D. M. (2007). The SNAP Under 12 Outreach Project: Effects of a community based program for children with conduct problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 799–807.

Evaluated Population:  A total of 30 children (22 boys) who had been referred to the ORP in Toronto, Ontario, Canada were evaluated in this study. The mean age of participants was 9 years.

Approach:  Children were eligible for the study if they had had contact with the police within 6 months of referral to the program and/or a score of 70 or greater on the Delinquency scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).  Participants were matched in pairs based on age, sex, and severity of delinquency, then randomized to receive the ORP or a non-clinical recreation program called Cool Runners Club.  However, matching was not exact. Siblings were assigned to the same condition to avoid cross-contamination.  Also, one pair of siblings was removed from the control group after matching because their parents could not complete parent report measures due to language difficulties. Consequently, groups were analyzed as independent samples.

Participants in the experimental group received SNAP™ ORP, while control group participants took part in the Cool Runners Program, a non-clinical recreation program.  At the end of both programs (3 months), the groups switched interventions.  The control group did not receive the same intensity of the ORP as the evaluation group, but results after 3 months can be interpreted as an assessment of the relative efficacy of a less intense version of the intervention.  Assessments of parent-rated delinquency and aggression were conducted at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months.  In addition, records of official juvenile justice involvement were assessed between each participant’s 12th and 18th birthdays.

Results:  At post-intervention (3 months), parents of children in the experimental group reported significantly decreased child delinquency and aggression compared with parents of children in the control group (effect sizes: 1.18 and 0.79, respectively).  These impacts remained significant at each subsequent assessment for both delinquency (effect sizes: 0.75, 0.93, and 1.16) and aggression (effect sizes: 0.93, 0.56, and 1.19), except that no significant difference in aggression was noted between groups at 12 months.  The experimental and control groups were not found to differ with regard to official adolescent criminal involvement between ages 12 and 18, though a non-significant trend was reported.




Augimeri, L. K., Farrington, D. P., Koegl, C. J., & Day, D. M. (2007). The SNAP Under 12 Outreach Project: Effects of a community based program for children with conduct problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 799–807.


Contact Information

Leena K. Augimeri

Centre for Children Committing Offences

Child Development Institute

46 St. Clair Gardens

Toronto, Ontario M6E 3V4, Canada

KEYWORDS:  Children (3-11); High-Risk; Clinic/Provider-Based; Community-Based; Counseling/Therapy; Parent or Family Component; Family Therapy; Tutoring; Parent Training/Education; Skills Training; Aggression; Delinquency; Manual Is Available

Program information last updated on 3/19/13.