Program

Jul 15, 2011

OVERVIEW

Schools and Homes in Partnership
“Skills for Adolescence” (SHIP) is a home- and classroom-based, conduct problems
prevention program that targets children in the first through fourth grades with
reading and behavioral problems – two prominent risk factors associated with
later conduct problems. SHIP employs three major strategies to prevent conduct
problems: a) social behavior interventions; b) parent training; and c)
supplemental reading instruction. Short- and long-term impacts indicate that the
program decreases negative social interactions, improves reading skills, and
reduces aggressive, coercive or antisocial behavior.

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM

Target population: Children
in grades 1 to 4

SHIP is a conduct-problem
prevention program that targets children at risk for academic failure and/or
antisocial behavior. The program is comprised of several evidence-based
interventions that may be classified into one of three major intervention
strategies: a) social behavior interventions; b) parent training; and c)
supplemental reading instruction.

A.Social Behavior Interventions: Contingencies for Learning Academic
and Social Skills (CLASS; Hops & Walker, 1988) and Dina Dinosaur Social Skills
Program (Dinosaur School; Webster-Stratton, 1992) were provided. CLASS met for
30 sessions, which were divided into three phases: a) sessions 1-5 were led by a
consultant and focused on rewarding appropriate classroom behaviors; b) sessions
6-20 were teacher-led and also focused on reinforcing grade-appropriate
behavior; and c) sessions 21-30 were facilitated by teachers and parents who
offered intermittent praise and recognition for appropriate behaviors. Dinosaur
School uses puppets and shows videotapes modeling appropriate classroom and
social behavior to children. This 20-session program met after school for 2-4
hours each week. Each group consisted of 4 to10 children and had at least two
adult leaders. Most leaders have their Masters degree or higher in some sort of
practice-based discipline (e.g., counseling, social work).

B.Parent Training: The Incredible Years program (Webster-Stratton,
1992) served as the program component focused on teaching parenting skills. The
program consists of 10 videotaped programs containing vignettes illustrating
good parenting skills (e.g., the appropriate way to play with your child, use
praise, set limits, deliver time-outs, and provide logical consequences). In
total, the programs contained about 250 vignettes that were each about 1- to
2-minutes in duration. This 12- to 16-session program met for approximately 2.25
hours per week and was delivered to groups of 5 to 14 parents. Depending on the
size of the group, two or sometimes three facilitators led these sessions.

C.Supplemental Reading Instruction: Two supplemental reading
programs (Gunn, Biglan, Smolkowski, & Ary., 2000) were offered: a) Reading
Mastery and b) Corrective Reading to students participating in the SHIP program.
Reading Master was offered to beginner readers in the first- and second grades.
Corrective Reading was offered to third- and fourth-grade students who were
still nonreaders or performing below-grade level. Both programs teach phonemic
awareness, sound-letter correspondence, blending, and other skills related to
successful reading development, however Corrective Reading teaches these skills
at a faster rate and used content that is more tailored to 8 and 9 year olds.

The program is delivered over the
course of two academic years.

EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM

Study 1.:Barrera,
M., Biglan, A., Taylor, T., Barbara K. Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Black, C., Ary,
D., & Fowler, R. (2002). Early Elementary School Intervention to Reduce Conduct
Problems: A Randomized Trial with Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Children. Prevention
Science, 3(2), 83-94.

Evaluated
Population: 
The study included284 families
with children in grades 1-4 who met screening criteria for high levels of
aggressive behavior or poor reading ability, in three Oregon communities. The
sample was 60% Hispanic, 40% European American, and was 45% female.

Approach: Families from 15 schools located in three Oregon communities
which were selected for their large Hispanic populations were invited to
participate in SHIP. A two-stage screening procedure was use to select children
with high levels of aggression or reading difficulty. Of the 364 families that
met the criteria, 306 (84%) agreed to participate.

The study utilized a
pretest-posttest experimental design, with multiple follow-ups. Prior to randomization, 21 families declined participation and 5 families
relocated, leaving a total of 284 families. These families were randomized to
either the treatment (n=141) or control condition (n=143). After randomization,
one more family dropped out of the study.

Data were collected at four time
points: a) prior to the beginning of the program, b) after the end of the first
year, c) after the end of the second year, and d) one year following program
completion. Measures included teacher ratings of aggression, parent ratings of
anti-social behaviors, and teacher and parent ratings of internalizing and
externalizing behavior. Reading skills were assessed using tests of early
literacy skills, oral reading fluency, and reading speed. Finally, social
behavior towards peers was assessed by trained research staff who observed
children during three, 10-15 minute recess periods, for 5-15 minute segments
each period.

Results: Program impacts were primarily found for parent and observer reports of
anti-social behavior (e.g., observer reports of decreased negative social
behavior at T3, parent reports of decreased coercive behavior at T3 and T4, and
parent reports of decreased anti-social behavior at T4). Significant changes in
internalizing behavior were found only for non-Hispanic children, according to
teacher ratings. Interestingly, an evaluation of observation data (at T3) found
that children selected because of aggressiveness benefited from the program in
terms of negative behavior, while those selected because of reading difficulties
did not. Program impacts at T2 were not reported.

Study 2: Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Barrera, M., Taylor, T., Black, C., & Blair, J.
(2005). Schools and Homes in Partnership (SHIP): Long-Term Effects of a
Preventive Intervention Focused on Social Behavior and Reading Skill in Early
Elementary School. Prevention Science, 6(2). 113-125.

Evaluated
Population: 
The study included329 families
with children in grades 1-4 who met screening criteria for high levels of
aggressive behavior or poor reading ability, in four Oregon communities. A
fourth community was added in order to include greater number of students with
aggressive behavior in the sample. The sample was 52% Hispanic, 48% European
American, and 46.5% female.

Approach: As described above, families from 14 schools in four Oregon
communities were invited to participate in SHIP. For this study, families from a
fourth community were added to the sample, in order to increase the proportion
of children with aggressive behavior. A two-stage screening procedure was use to
select children with high levels of aggression and reading difficulty. In all,
329 families participated in this study.

The study utilized a
pretest-posttest experimental design, with follow-ups one and two years after
program completion. Data collection procedures and measures are the same as
Study 1, with the exception that a 2-year follow-up assessment was added. This
analysis corrected for clustering resulting from the repeated measures design.

Results: This study reports 2-year outcomes of the SHIP program. Impacts were found for 2
of 8 outcomes: parent daily report of anti-social behavior and parent rating of
coercive behavior. Parent ratings of children’s use of coercive behavior
declined more dramatically for boys in the intervention group than for girls in
the intervention group. Additionally, findings for teacher-rated aggression
suggest that boys who were screened as aggressive at baseline experienced
greater declines in aggression from program participation while boys who had
positive screens for reading difficulty experienced escalating rates of
aggression over time. No
program impacts were found for parent-rated antisocial behavior, teacher-rated
social competence, or for observer-rated social interactions.

Study 3:
Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering
the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for
Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39,
66-85.

Evaluated
population: 
Just over 4,000 (N=4,004) students in 13 schools across four
Oregon communities were screened for participation, based on demonstration of
potential reading deficits and/or aggressive social behavior. After screening,
recruitment, and drop-out, 299 met the criteria and participated in the
randomized study in either the treatment (N=148) or control (N=151) group. Of
those in the study, just over 53 percent were Hispanic, and nearly 47 percent
were non-Hispanic. Just over 46 percent were female. At the baseline, the
population was distributed across grades as follows: 17 percent were in
kindergarten; 29 percent were in first grade; 30 percent were in second grade;
and just under 24 percent were in third grade.

Approach:
Prior to random assignment, students were administered the word attack (i.e.,
converting letters into language or decoding skills) and word identification
subsets of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement and a measure of oral
reading fluency. The students’ teachers completed an assessment of their social
skills. Students were grouped by community and grade, rank-ordered on their
reading ability, and then randomly assigned to either the treatment or control
beginning with the poorest pair of readers. Remaining single students were
matched across groups and then randomly assigned.

Throughout the
study, student behaviors and outcomes were monitored along the following lines:
teacher documentation of the frequency of specific aggressive behaviors;
researcher measures of early literacy skills (which varied based on grade);
annual testing administered by intervention-blind assessors. The annual test
used the Woodcock-Johnson Revised test of Achievement to measure: letter-word
identification; word attack; passage comprehension; and reading vocabulary.

In addition, all
parents were offered parent training and some of the children received a
behavioral intervention component. However, these programmatic elements were
not randomly assigned.

Results:
Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in slope from the
baseline measure to the end of the first year of the intervention for the
treatment group in three measures: word attack, reading comprehension, and
letter-word identification, compared with the control group. The improvement in
letter-word identification was limited to students in the treatment indentified
as poor readers only. Hispanic students in the treatment also had slopes that
grew at a significantly greater rate on word attack as compared with
non-Hispanics in the treatment. There were no noted significant differences in
oral reading fluency or vocabulary between the treatment and control groups at
the end of the first year of treatment.

At two-years after
the end of the full treatment, however, there was a positive, statistically
significant difference in the slope of the treatment group as compared with the
control group for oral reading fluency and word-letter identification, with the
word-letter identification difference appearing only for poor readers. There
were also positive, statistically significant mean differences for the treatment
group on word attack, oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, and
vocabulary, as compared with the control group.

The final
assessment occurred two years after the end of treatment, that is, four years
after random assignment. At this assessment, students in the treatment group
showed a statistically significant, positive mean difference in letter-word
identification, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension, as compared
with the control group. The treatment group also showed a positive,
statistically significant difference in slope for oral reading fluency and word
attack as compared with the control. The difference between the treatment and
control groups on vocabulary at the end of the two year post-treatment
assessment fell just short of being statistically significant. The researchers
did not analyze any impacts on aggressive behavior in this study.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION

Link to program curricula:

CLASS: n/a

Dina Dinosaur:

http://www.incredibleyears.com/Program/teacher.asp

Incredible Years:

http://www.incredibleyears.com/program/parent.asp

Reading Mastery:
n/a

Corrective Reading:
n/a

References:

Study
1:
Barrera, M., Biglan, A., Taylor, T., Barbara K. Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Black,
C., Ary, D., & Fowler, R. (2002). Early Elementary School Intervention to Reduce
Conduct Problems: A Randomized Trial with Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Children.
Prevention Science, 3(2), 83-94.

Study 2:
Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Barrera,
M., Taylor, T., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Schools and Homes in Partnership
(SHIP): Long-Term Effects of a Preventive Intervention Focused on Social
Behavior and Reading Skill in Early Elementary School. Prevention Science, 6(2).
113-125.

Study 3 :Gunn, B.,
Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., & Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the
development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for
Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39,
66-85.

KEYWORDS: Children (3-11), School-based, Elementary
School, Aggression, Reading, Hispanic or Latino, White or Caucasian, Parent or
Family Component, Skills Training, Conduct or Disruptive Disiorders.

Program
information last updated on 07/15/11.