Program

Sep 12, 2008

Guide
to Effective Programs
for Children and Youth

 

PARENTING THROUGH CHANGE (PTC)

OVERVIEW

The Parenting
Through Change (PTC) program teaches parenting techniques to recently separated
or divorced mothers. These techniques are aimed at reducing behavioral and
emotional problems in the mother’s children. In a random assignment study of
238 recently divorced mothers and their sons, the mother/son pairs were assigned
either to receive the Parenting Through Change intervention or to a
non-treatment control group. Results indicated that boys in the experimental
group exhibited significantly greater reduction in delinquency and deviant peer
affiliation than boys in the control group and that these reductions in
delinquency were due to improvement in parenting and reductions in deviant peer
affiliation.

DESCRIPTION
OF PROGRAM

Target
population:
Recently separated, single mothers with children between grades
1 and 3.

Parenting Through
Change is a prevention-based parent training program for recently separated or
divorced, single mothers. The program was designed to prevent child behavioral
and emotional problems that tend to follow parental divorce or separation. The
program attempts to prevent or reduce these child problems through parenting
skills training.

The parenting
skills training consists of 14 weekly parent group sessions that teach various
effective parenting practices, such as skill encouragement, limit-setting,
problem-solving, monitoring, and positive involvement. Parenting Through Change
also provides parents with strategies to decrease coercive exchanges with their
children and to use praise and incentives to promote prosocial behaviors. Each
newly introduced topic builds upon a previously learned skill. Topics are
introduced in one or more sessions and then reviewed and revisited throughout
the program.

The estimated cost
of implementing Parenting Through Change is $1,000 per participant. The cost
covers 1) recording equipment for supervision and fidelity checks, training of
group supervisors, and training of group facilitators, 2) user guides, program
materials, training, and evaluation materials, and 3) miscellaneous program
expenses.

EVALUATION(S)
OF PROGRAM

DeGarmo, D.S., &
Forgatch, M.S. (2005). Early development of delinquency within divorced
families: Evaluating a randomized preventive intervention trial. Developmental Science, 8,229-239.

Evaluated
population:
The sample included 238 recently-separated mothers and their
sons, who were between grades 1 and 3. The mothers and sons resided in a
medium-sized city in the Pacific Northwest. The racial/ethnic composition of
the boys in the sample was 86% white, 1% African American, 2% Latino, 2% Native
American, and 9% from “other” racial/ethnic groups. The mean annual family
income was $14,900, and 76% of the families were receiving public assistance.

Approach:
Each mother-son pair was randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a
non-intervention control group. Mothers in the intervention group attended a
series of 14 parent group weekly meetings. Families in the control group did
not receive any interventions.

Families received
extensive multiple-method, setting, and agent assessments at baseline and at 6,
12, 18, and 30 months. Teacher ratings of delinquent were also collected at
baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 months. Researchers conducted structured
interviews with the mothers and children, laboratory observations of
mother-child interactions, and surveys of the mothers, children, and teachers.
Researchers assessed child outcomes, including delinquency and associations with
deviant peers as reported by the boys. They also assessed effective parenting
practices (such as discipline monitoring, involvement, and reinforcement of
positive behavior).

Results:
Non-experimental analyses suggest boys in the experimental group exhibited
significantly greater reduction in delinquency and deviant peer affiliation than
boys in the control group. In addition compared with parents of control group
boys, intervention group parents had faster rates of adopting more positive
parenting practices. The impact of the treatment intervention on delinquency
was accounted for by a significant improvement in parenting and a reduction in
deviant peer affiliation.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION

Implementation information may be
obtained from:

Marion S. Forgatch,
Ph.D.

Executive Director

Implementation
Sciences International, Inc.

2852 Willamette
Street, #172

Eugene, OR 97405

Phone: (541)
485-2711; Fax: (541) 338-9963

E-mail:

marionf@oslc.org

References

DeGarmo, D.S., &
Forgatch, M.S. (2005). Early development of delinquency within divorced
families: Evaluating a randomized preventive intervention trial. Developmental Science, 8,229-239.

Program
categorized in this guide according to the following:

Evaluated
participant grades: 1 through 3

Program age ranges
in the guide: Middle Childhood

Program components:
Mentoring/Tutoring, Parent or Family Component

Measured outcomes:
Behavioral Problems

Program
information last updated on 9/12/08.