Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO)
The Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO) with professional staff is
designed to help children who have problems with aggression and their parents.
In this small-scale study, 19 cases were randomly assigned to either parent
training or a wait-list control group. Families received as many sessions as
deemed necessary. From pre-test to post-test were improvements in behavior
between the experimental and control group.
DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM
Children (3-12 Years)
In this program, counselors teach parents techniques such as time-out to manage
their children, but parent-training does not include marital counseling or how
to deal with crises external to the family.
The experimental group is
treated by the Oregon Social Learning Center master’s-level counselors and
student-therapist staff members who have been employed for at least one year.
These professional staff members are trained intensively and participate in
weekly clinical staffings. In the PMTO program, families are seen individually
for weekly treatment sessions and therapists call parents bi-weekly. The average
treatment time for this group is 17 hours (ranging from four to 48 hours) over
an average 11.75 sessions (ranging from one to 32 sessions). Together, staff
review videotaped sessions weekly.
The cost of the program is
$27,755 for 7 months per student.
EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM
Patterson, G. R., P.
Chamberlain, et al. (1982). A Comparative Evaluation of a Parent-Training
Program. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638-650.
19 children ages 3-12 in the Eugene, Oregon area
Pediatricians, school or mental health personnel, or parents referred children
to the Oregon Social Learning Center if they met the following criteria: the
child was three to 12 years old; parents agreed to home observations; neither
parents nor child had previously been diagnosed as psychotic, severely retarded,
or autistic; the family resided within a 25-minute drive from the Center; and
the primary problem was social aggression.
The authors defined social
aggression by behaviors such as temper tantrums or hitting, or the parent had
described the child as severely out of control.
Forty-six families were
referred, and seventeen of the subjects were not included in the sample because
they had a low rate of observed social aggression. The remaining nineteen
subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (N=10 children)
or a control group (N=9 children).
The control group was placed
on a waiting list or could accept a referral to outside help. All but one family
accepted the referral. The control group mostly was treated by local staff by
behavior modification, an Adlerian approach, a structural family systems
approach, or relaxation and physical exercise.
According to the American
Psychological Association, the Adlerian approach recognizes that the individual
is in a social environment and acts on his or her own decisions within that
environment, “It emphasizes the individual’s strivings for success,
connectedness with others, and contributions to society as being hallmarks of
mental health” (American Psychological Association, 2009).
The authors observed family
interactions, used a parent report of child behavior, and a counselor-rated
scale to measure negative behaviors.
data on child deviant behavior indicate a 63 percent decline from baseline for
the treatment group, a statistically significant difference from the control
group despite the small sample. At the post-test, 70 percent of the treated
children had scores defined to be in the normal range, compared with 33 percent
of the control group children. Parents reported that their children overall
significantly improved, but there was no significant difference in change
between the experimental and control group.
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
Association. (2009). Adlerian Therapy: APA Videos. Retrieved May 19, 2009,
Patterson, G. R., P. Chamberlain, et al. (1982). A
Comparative Evaluation of a Parent-Training Program. Behavior Therapy, 13,
Program categorized in this
guide according to the following:
ages: Early Childhood (0-5), Middle Childhood (6-11), Adolescence (12-14).
Counseling/Therapy (Inc. Medical), Clinic/Provider-Based, Home Visiting, Parent
or Family Component.
and Emotional Health, Behavioral Problems.
(0-5),Middle Childhood (6-11), Adolescence (12-17), Social/Emotional
Health, Children (3-11), Aggression, Externalizing Problems, Conduct Problems,
Behavioral Problems, Clinic-Based.
Program information last