Program

Mar 05, 2013

OVERVIEW

Informed Parents and Children Together (ImPACT) is a home-based intervention targeting parents or guardians of high-risk, urban African-American adolescents. ImPACT consists of a single session with parents and their children that includes a culturally-appropriate video, role plays, discussions, workbook exercises, and condom skills-training.  ImPACT is designed to increase parental monitoring (supervision and communication), with the ultimate goal of reducing adolescents’ sexual risk behavior.

An evaluation of this intervention revealed that, at two and six months post-intervention, the ImPACT program increased agreement between adolescents and their parents regarding the adolescents’ involvement in risk and protective behaviors (meaning, that program participant parents were more accurate in assessing their children’s’ risk-taking behaviors, as reported by the adolescents).  In addition, at six months post-intervention, adolescents and their parents demonstrated higher levels of condom-use skills. No significant differences were found by intervention status in adolescent or parent report of communication or monitoring.

ImPACT is commonly implemented in conjunction with the 8-session HIV risk reduction program, Focus on Youth (FOY).  More information on this combined program (FOY+ImPACT) can be found here.

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM

Target population: Low-income, urban parents and guardians of African American adolescents and their children.

ImPACT is administered to parents (and their adolescent children) by a trained interventionist or health educator. The program is typically implemented in the home or in a mutually agreed upon community setting.  The 60-90 minute intervention includes a video (22 minutes in length) that is culturally-tailored and that features scenes of real parents and youth talking with each other and with health professionals.  The video addresses parental monitoring, parent-child communication in general, contraception and STD issues, and drug and alcohol usage; in particular, it emphasizes parent-child communication about sexual values and expectations.  ImPACT also includes guided role playing activities, workbook activities, condom demonstrations, and follow-up discussions.  The follow-up discussion and role playing activities reinforce the underlying themes of the video, and provides parents and adolescents an opportunity to practice newly gained skills (for example, proper condom usage and effective communication). At the end, parents are given a copy of the video and written materials highlighting the main points discussed in the video.

EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM

Stanton, B. F., Li, X., Galbrath, J., Cornick, G., Feigelman, S. Kaljee, L., & Zhou, Y. (2000). Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: A randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 18-26.

Evaluated population: A total of 237 dyads (parents/guardians and one adolescent child) were recruited from eight public housing developments in the mid-Atlantic region. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years old.  The median age of adolescents was 13.6 years, and over one-half (51%) were male. Most of the parents (96%) were female.

Approach: Dyads were randomly assigned to the experimental condition (ImPACT) or to the control condition.  Those in the control group received the Goal for IT (GFT) program is skills-based and focuses on the process and steps in planning for education and career training.  GFI is similar in format and duration and consists of an in-home video and follow-up discussion, ending with parents being given a copy of the video and written materials; unlike, ImPACT however, there is no follow-up discussion of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, contraception and STD issues, and drug and alcohol usage.  Further, the control dyads do not participate in any role playing activities.

Following randomization, four questionnaires were administered to parents and their adolescent children via computer. The questionnaires measured adolescent engagement in risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, illicit drug usage, carrying a weapon) and protective behaviors (e.g., achieved honor roll, received an award); parental awareness of adolescent engagement is risk and protective behaviors; parental and adolescent perception of parental monitoring and family communication; and parental and adolescent condom-use skills.  The follow-up questionnaires were repeated at two months and six months post-intervention.

Results: At two and six months post-intervention, the ImPACT program increased agreement between adolescents and their parents regarding the adolescents’ involvement in risk and protective behaviors.  Specifically, at the 2-month follow-up, FOK parents were more accurate in gauging their adolescents’ cigarette use (that is, their reports were more similar to their adolescents’ reports) than were control parents.  At the 6-month follow-up, parents were more accurate in gauging whether their adolescents carried weapons (bat, stick, or knife), whether they used marijuana, and whether they had a boyfriend or girlfriend.  There were no program impacts on parent-child agreement about achieving honor roll, fighting, carrying a gun, staying out all night, drinking alcohol, trafficking drugs, or having sex.

In addition, at the 6-month follow-up, adolescents and their parents in the FOK group demonstrated higher overall levels of condom-use skills, compared with those in the control group.  Measuring specific condom use skills, adolescents in the FOK group performed better than those in the control group at squeezing air from the tip of the condom, keeping the tip of the condom pinched, and unrolling the condom to the base of the penis.  FOK parents demonstrated improvements in squeezing air from the tip of the condom.

No significant differences were found by intervention status in adolescent or parent report of communication or monitoring.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION

Curriculum materials available at:

http://www.etr.org/foy/index.htm

http://www.effectiveinterventions.org/en/HighImpactPrevention/Interventions/FOY.asp

References

Stanton, B. F., Li, X., Galbrath, J., Cornick, G., Feigelman, S. Kaljee, L., & Zhou, Y. (2000). Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: A randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 18-26. 

KEYWORDS: Adolescents, Males and Females (Co-ed), High-Risk, Black or African American, Urban, Home-based, Cost Information is Available, Manual is Available, Parent or Family Component, Skills Training, Tobacco, Marijuana/Illicit/Prescription Drugs, Alcohol Use, Parent-Child Relationship, Sexual Activity, Condom Use and Contraception, Aggression, Delinquency.

Program information last updated 3/5/2013.

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