This intervention assessed the efficacy of standardized resistance training focusing on maintenance of fat free mass during a dietary management weight reduction program for obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese children and adolescents were randomly assigned to a group engaged in resistance training as well as an educational dietary weight reduction program or a second group only following a similar dietary program. Adolescents in the treatment group showed significant increases in percentage fat free mass over 12 weeks compared with those in the control group. These changes were correlated with long-term weight reduction.
DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM
Target population: obese children and adolescents
The goal of the intervention is to promote maintenance of fat free mass during weight reduction by introducing resistance training along with a dietary weight loss program. General dietary advice includes information about energy requirements, relation of the different nutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrates), and importance of fiber, vitamins, minerals and fluids. This dietary advice is initially delivered by group teaching. Adolescents receive written information regarding an energy restricted and balanced diet. Participants receive dietary re-education on an individual basis during visits at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and months 6 and 12.
In addition to dietary modifications, children and adolescents engage in individualized strength training programs in order to maintain fat free mass. Training sessions of 60-70 minutes are completed twice a week for 12 weeks. All exercises are completed using weight stacking machines. Exercise intensity is gradually increased over the training period.
EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM
Schwingshandl, J., . Sudi, K., Eibel, B., Wallner, S., Borkenstein M., (1999). Effect of an individualized training programme during weight reduction on body composition: A randomized trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 81;426-428.
Evaluated population: Thirty obese children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years old were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group comprised of six boys and eight girls with an average age of 11 and mean standardized body mass index score (BMI-SDS) of 5.58 (2.46) while the control group had 7 boys and 9 girls at an average age of 12.2 years old and BMI-SDS of 5.33 (1.79).
Approach: The experimental group of 6 boys and 8 girls received dietary and resistance training over a 12-week period. The control group of 7 boys and 9 girls received the same dietary intervention as the first group for the same duration, but without the individualized training component.
At baseline, all participants’ body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and fat free body mass were measured. BMI-SDS is a measure of relative weight that is adjusted for child age and sex, and fat free body mass measures body mass that is not made up of fat and includes muscle, bones, skin, and organs. Changes in these measures were analyzed for significant changes and differences between the two groups 12 weeks after randomization using paired comparison t-tests. Ten children from each group were reassessed 12 months after randomization.
Results: Participants in the experimental group significantly increased percentage fat free mass over 12 weeks compared with those in the control group. Increase in fat free mass was weakly associated with decreased body weight over one year. Participants in the experimental group showed significant changes in BMI-SDS and fat free mass from baseline to week 12. However, weight changes were not significant for this group. Participants in the control group did not show significant changes in weight or fat free mass. However, they showed significant changes in BMI-SDS. Changes in fat free mass after 12 weeks were significantly different between the two groups. Changes in fat free mass at 12 weeks were inversely correlated with changes in body weight after 12 months.
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
Schwingshandl, J., . Sudi, K., Eibel, B., Wallner, S., Borkenstein M., (1999). Effect of an individualized training programme during weight reduction on body composition: A randomized trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 81; 426-428.
KEYWORDS: Children (3-11), Adolescents (12-17), Males and Females (Co-ed), Obesity
Program information last updated on 5/23/11.