Program

Mar 05, 2013

OVERVIEW

Focus on Youth plus Informed Parents and Children Together (FOY+ImPACT) is a two-part program involving the original FOY skill-building curriculum and an additional parental component (ImPACT).  FOY+ImPACT has also been evaluated with additional FOY “booster” sessions. The program was previously called Focus on Kids plus ImPACT (FOK+ImPACT).  The program was originally designed to decrease HIV risk behaviors among low-income, urban African American children and adolescents, ages 9-15.

One evaluation of FOY+ImPACT revealed that participants in the treatment group reported higher parental monitoring and were less likely than those in an FOK-only group to engage in sexual risk behaviors, have sex, have unprotected sex, smoke cigarettes, or drink alcohol at 6-months post-intervention.  At 12 months, the latter two impacts were still significant; further, the program had positive impacts on marijuana use and risk-taking intentions (but negative impacts on perceptions of problems with parent-child communication).  Additionally at 12-months, participants who received FOY+ImPACT plus booster sessions were less likely than those in the FOY+ImPACT group to use crack/cocaine, sell drugs, fight, or report problems with parent-child communication.

A second evaluation of FOY+ImPACT revealed that participants in the FOY+ImPACT group (with or without booster sessions) were less likely than those in the FOY-only group to smoke cigarettes, use illicit drugs, or carry a stick or bat as a weapon.  There were more likely to ask partners if they always used condoms and marginally less likely to become pregnant/get someone pregnant.  Those in the FOY+ImPACT group (without boosters) were also marginally less likely than those in a FOY-only group to engage in anal sex at the 24-month follow-up.  Those who received FOY+ImPACT plus booster sessions were also less likely than those in the FOY-only group to use marijuana, more likely to talk to their family or other adults about HIV/AIDs, and marginally more likely to use birth control at their most recent sexual encounter.

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM

Target population: Groups of high-risk, low-income, urban African American friends or peers, ages 9-15.

FOY+ImPACT is two-part program, consisting of an 8-session skills-based HIV risk reduction curriculum (FOY) and a 1-session parent component (ImPACT). FOY is designed to be delivered to small groups of same-gender friends; the curriculum teaches participants about abstinence and safe sex, alcohol, drugs, AIDS and STDs, contraception and, and human development through use of games, homework, discussions and videos. Multiple content delivery formats are employed, including small group discussions, lectures, videos, games, role-playing, acting, storytelling, and crafts projects.  The program is provided in 8 weekly meetings, each lasting 1.5 hours. More information about FOY can be found here.  The second component of the program, ImPACT, is a single session home-based intervention administered to parents (and their children) designed to increase parental monitoring. It consists of 22-minute video focusing on parental monitoring, followed by youth-parent role-play, discussions, and condom use skill-building. More information about ImPACT can be found here.

The program was previously called Focus on Kids plus ImPACT (FOK+ImPACT).  When authors refer to the program as FOK+ImPACT in their evaluation article, that is the program name that is used in that evaluation overview.

EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM

Stanton, B., Cole, M., Galbraith, J., Li, X., Pendleton, S., Cottrel, L., Marshall, S., Wu, Y., & Kaljee, L.  (2004). Randomized trial of a parent intervention: Parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge.  Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 158, 947-955.

Evaluated population:  The evaluated sample consisted of 817 children and adolescents from 35 low income study sites in Baltimore, MD.  The median age of the sample was 14, and 58 percent of the participants were female.

Approach:  Randomization occurred at the site level.  Each site was randomly assigned to one of the three following study conditions:  1) FOK, 2) FOK+ImPACT intervention, or 3) FOK+ImPACT plus periodic FOK booster sessions.   Participants in the FOK booster group attended four, 90-minute sessions delivered 7, 10, 13, and 16 months after the intervention.  In these sessions, program leaders reviewed the material originally presented in the FOK intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up time points.  At these assessments, participants provided self-reports of their involvement in risk behaviors, including delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk-taking.  This evaluation reports on findings from the 24-month follow-up. The program evaluation compared FOK (the “control” condition) to FOK+ImPACT, to FOK+ImPACT plus boosters, and to both of the latter two interventions combined (examining differences in FOK participants and FOK+ImPACT participants, with or without boosters).

Results:  At 24-months post intervention, participants in the FOK+ImPACT were less likely than those in the FOK-only group to have smoked cigarettes in the past six months, and they were marginally less likely to have used other illicit drugs,  to have engaged in anal sex, and to have been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant.

Those who received FOK+ImPACT plus booster sessions were less likely than those in the FOK-only group to have smoked cigarettes, to have used marijuana, or to have carried a bat or stick as a weapon in the past six months.  They were more likely to talk to their family or other adults about HIV/AIDs and to ask partners if they always used condoms; they were marginally more likely to use birth control at their most recent sexual encounter.

Those in the FOK+ImPACT group (with or without booster sessions) were less likely than those in the FOK-only group to smoke cigarettes, use illicit drugs, or carry a stick or bat as a weapon in the past six months.  There were more likely to ask partners if they always used condoms and marginally less likely to become pregnant/get someone pregnant.

Wu, Y., Stanton, B.F., Galbraith, J.,Kalijee, L., Cottrell, L., Li, X., Harris, C.V., D’Alessandri, D., & Burns, J.M. (2003). Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics, 111, e32-e38.

Evaluated population: A total of 817 Black adolescents between 12 and 16 years old from 35 low-income communities participated in the study. The sample was 42 percent male.

Approach: Participants were randomly assigned to receive the FOK intervention, the FOK+ImPACT intervention, or the FOK+ImPACT intervention with two FOK booster sessions. Boosters occurred immediately after the 6- and 10-month follow-up; they involved reviewing activities completed in the initial sessions as well as completing new activities relevant to the original FOK content. Participants were assessed at baseline, and six and 12 months following the intervention on risk behaviors, risk-taking intentions, and perceptions of parental monitoring and communication. At baseline, the FOK+ImPACT group reported higher levels of parental monitoring than the FOK-only group.

Results: At six months post-intervention, participants who received the FOK+ImPACT were marginally less likely than those in the FOK-only group to engage in sexual risk behaviors (a combined measure of having sex and/or having sex without a condom) or to have sex.  They were significantly less likely to have unprotected sex, smoke cigarettes or to drink alcohol.  Additionally, those in the intervention group were more likely to report higher levels of parental monitoring.

At twelve months post-intervention, those who received the FOK+ImPACT intervention had lower rates of alcohol and marijuana use and marginally lower rates of cigarette use compared to those who received the FOK-only intervention; however, they had higher reports of problem communication with parents.

Further, at the 12-month follow-up, those who received FOK+ImPACT plus the additional booster sessions were less likely than those in the FOK+ImPACT group to have sold drugs or to have problem communication with their parents, and they were marginally less likely to have used crack/cocaine or to have been in fights in the previous six months.

There were no impacts on other risky behaviors or perceptions of parental communication.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION

Curriculum materials available at:

http://www.etr.org/foy/index.htm

http://www.effectiveinterventions.org/en/HighImpactPrevention/Interventions/FOY.aspx

References:

Stanton, B., Cole, M., Galbraith, J., Li, X., Pendleton, S., Cottrel, L., Marshall, S., Wu, Y., & Kaljee, L.  (2004). Randomized trial of a parent intervention:  Parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge.  Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 158, 947-955.

Stanton, B. Harris, C. Cottrell, L., Li, X., Gibson, C., Guo, J., Pack, R., Galbraith, J., Pendleton, S., Wu, Y., Burns, J., Cole, M., & Marshall, S. (2006). Trial of an urban adolescent sexual risk-reduction intervention for rural youth: A promising but imperfect fit. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 55.e25-55.e36.

Stanton, B. F., Li, X., Galbrath, J., Cornick, G., Feigelman, S. Kaljee, L., & Zhou, Y. (2000). Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: A randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 18-26.

Stanton, B. F., Li, X., Galbraith, J., Feigelman, S., & Kaljee, L.  (1996). Sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, and pregnancy prevention: Combined contraceptive practices among urban African-American early adolescents.  Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 17-24.

Stanton, B. F., Li, X., Ricardo, I., Galbraith, J., Feigelman, S., & Kaljee, L.  (1996). A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of an AIDS prevention program for low-income African-American youths.  Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 363-372.

Wu, Y., Stanton, B.F., Galbraith, J.,Kalijee, L., Cottrell, L., Li, X., Harris, C.V., D’Alessandri, D., & Burns, J.M. (2003). Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics, 111, e32-e38.

KEYWORDS: Children, Adolescents, Males and Females (Co-ed), High-Risk, Black or African American, Urban, Home-based, School-based, Community-based, Cost Information is Available, Manual is Available, Parent or Family Component, Skills Training, Tobacco, Marijuana/Illicit/Prescription Drugs, Alcohol Use, Parent-Child Relationship, Teen Pregnancy, STD/HIV/AIDS, Sexual Activity, Condom Use and Contraception, Aggression, Delinquency.

Program information last updated on 3/5/13