The Bureau of Labor Statistics defines employment as any paid work by anyone over age 16. Those who are jobless, available for work, and actively looking for jobs are classified as unemployed. Youth employment/unemployment refers to ages 16–24. Some youth are neither employed nor unemployed: e.g., those in the armed forces, those enrolled in school and not looking for work, parents taking care of young children exclusively, and “discouraged workers.”
 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (January 28, 2010). America’s youth at 22: School enrollment, training, and employment transitions between ages 21 and 22 (USDL-10-0099). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://stats.bls.gov/news.release/archives/nlsyth_01282010.pdf.
 Sum, A., & Khatiwada, I. (2004). Still young, restless, and jobless: The growing employment malaise among U.S. teens and young adults. Boston, MA: Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University. Retrieved from http://www.aypf.org/publications/stillyoungrestlessandjoblessreport.pdf.
 Bird, K., & Okoh, C. (2016). Employment pathways for boys and young men of color: Solutions and strategies that can make a difference. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy. Retrieved from http://www.clasp.org/resources-and-publications/publication-1/BMOC_Employment.pdf.
 JP Morgan Chase & Co. (2016). Expanding economic opportunity for youth through summer jobs: Boosting program capacity and partnerships. New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from https://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/news/document/2015-syep-report.pdf.
 Heller, S. B. (2014). Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth. Science, 346(6214), 1219-1223.
 Bird, K., & Okoh, C., op. cit.
 Warren, J. R., & Lee, J. C. (2003). The impact of adolescent employment on high school dropout: Differences by individual and labor-market characteristics. Social Science Research, 32(1), 98-128.
 McDowell, U., & Futris, T. G. (2001). Adolescent employment. Columbus, OH: Department of Human Development and Family Science, Ohio State University. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=ohio+state+university&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-1-ab.
 Apel, R., Bushway, S. D., Paternoster, R., Brame, R., & Sweeten, G. (2008). Using state child labor laws to identify the causal effect of youth employment on deviant behavior and academic achievement. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24(4), 337-362.
 Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2005). Urban teenagers: Work and dropout. Youth & Society, 37(1), 3-32.
 Warren, J. R. (2002). Reconsidering the relationship between student employment and academic outcomes: A new theory and better data. Youth & Society, 33(3), 366-393.
 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). College enrollment and work activity of high school and college graduates: 2017. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/hsgec.pdf.
 Brainard, L. (2015). Coming of age in the Great Recession. Speech at the Ninth Biennial Federal Reserve System Community Development Research Conference, Washington, DC, April 2, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/brainard20150402a.pdf
 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2016). Experiences and perspectives of young workers. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/2015-experiences-and-perspectives-of-young-workers-201612.pdf
 Scott, M. M., Zhang, S., & Koball, H. (2015). Dropping out and clocking in: A portrait of teens who leave school early and work. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000189-Dropping-Out-and-Clocking-In.pdf
 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Op. cit.
 National Research Center for Career and Technical Education. (2007). Major research findings 2000-2007: Engagement, achievement, and transition. Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nrccte.org/resources/publications/major-research-findings-2000-2007-engagement-achievement-and-transition
 Association for Career and Technical Education. (undated). Research demonstrates the value of career and technical education [Fact sheet]. Alexandria, VA: Author.