Parental involvement in school is defined as parent-reported participation at least once during the school year: attending a general school meeting, attending a scheduled parent-teacher conference, attending a school or class event, or volunteering in the school or serving on a school committee.
 Hispanic students may be of any race. Black, white, and Asian/Pacific Islander estimates do not include Hispanic students in this report.
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 Robinson, K. & Harris, A. L. (2015). The broken compass: Parental involvement with children’s education. J. Hardie, (Ed.). Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 44(5), 697–699.
 Watson, L. & Swanberg, J. E. (2011). Flexible workplace solutions for low-wage hourly workers: A framework for a national conversation. Washington, DC & Lexington, KY: Georgetown Law and University of Kentucky. Retrieved from http://workplaceflexibility2010.org/images/uploads/whatsnew/Flexible%20Workplace%20Solutions%20for%20Low-Wage%20Hourly%20Workers.pdf.
 Tarasawa, B. & Waggoner, J. (2015). Increasing parental involvement of English Language Learner families: What the research says. Journal of Children and Poverty, (21)2, 129–134.
Child Trends. (2013). Parental involvement in schools. Available at: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=parental-involvement-in-schools