These estimates reflect coverage for any portion of the year by private or public health insurance, except for estimates for children and youth with special health care needs, which reflect coverage at the time of the survey. Public health insurance consists primarily of Medicaid, but also includes Medicare, State Children’s Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP/CHIP), and the Medical Care Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS/Tricare).
In 2013, there was a redesign in the way questions about health insurance were asked. These changes were meant to enhance reporting for earlier time periods, along information about other people in the household and the type of coverage. More details on the changes and their effects are available at https://www.census.gov/srd/papers/pdf/RSM2014-02.pdf.
 Hadley, J. (2003). Sicker and poorer—The consequences of being uninsured: A review of the research on the relationship between health insurance, medical care use, health, work, and income. Medical Care Research and Review, 60(2), 3S-75S. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077558703254101
 Olson, L. M., Tang, S. S., & Newacheck, P. W. (2005). Children in the United States with discontinuous health insurance coverage. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(4), 382-391.
 Halterman, J. S., Montes, G., Shone, L. P., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2008). The impact of health insurance gaps on access to care among children with asthma in the United States. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 8(1), 43-49.
 Cohen, R. A., Martinez, M. E., & Zammitti, E. P. (2017). Health insurance coverage: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January – March 2017. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/insur201708.pdf.
 Foutz, J., Squires, E., Garfield, R., & Damico, A. (2017). The uninsured: A primer. Key facts about Americans without health insurance (Report No. 7451-13). Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://files.kff.org/attachment/Report-The-Uninsured-A-Primer-Key-Facts-about-Health-Insurance-and-the-Uninsured-Under-the-Affordable-Care-Act.
 Miller, S. (2012). The impact of the Massachusetts health care reform on health care use among children. American Economic Review, 102(3), 502-507.
 Ross, D. C., & Hill, I. T. (2003). Enrolling eligible children and keeping them enrolled. The Future of Children, 13(1), 80-97. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1602640.
 Hughes, D. C., & Ng, S. (2003). Reducing health disparities among children. The Future of Children, 13(1), 152-167. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1602645.
 Cohen, R. A., Martinez, M. E., & Zammitti, E. P. (2017). Op cit.
 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2018). Financing. Woodlawn, MD: Author. Retrieved from https://www.medicaid.gov/chip/financing/index.html.
 Beginning in 2002, the Census allowed respondents to select more than one racial category. The white, black and Asian categories refer to those who selected only one race. Hispanic children may be of any race, while white children in this report do not include Hispanic youth.
 Flores, G., Lin, H., Walker, C., Lee, M., Portillo, A., Henry, M., Fierro, M., & Massey, K. (2016). A cross-sectional study of parental awareness of and reasons for lack of health insurance among minority children, and the impact on health, access to care, and unmet needs. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(44). Retrieved from http://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-016-0331-y;.
 Holahan, J., Dubay, L., & Kenney, G. M. (2003). Which children are still uninsured and why. Future of Children, 13(1), 54-79. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1602639?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
 Pérez, S. M. (2004). Shaping new possibilities for Latino children and the nation’s future. Future of Children, 14(2), 122-126. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1602798.
 U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). American Community Survey tables for health insurance coverage [Table HI- 05]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/health-insurance/acs-hi.html.