Differences by poverty and receipt of public assistance
Children in families who live in poverty are more likely to repeat a grade in primary school. In 2016, around 8 percent of children in households with incomes at or below the federal poverty level repeated a grade, compared with 3 percent of those in households with higher incomes (3 percent). Additionally, children living in households receiving SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or food stamps) or Medicaid benefits are more likely than those from households not receiving those benefits to have ever repeated a grade. In 2016, 10 percent of children receiving SNAP benefits in the last 12 months repeated a primary school grade, compared with 3 percent of children in households not receiving those benefits (Appendix 1).