Students were asked whether they had imbibed five or more drinks in a row at least once in the two-week period prior to the survey. Youth who have dropped out of school and students who were absent on the day of the survey are not included in the results. For detailed analysis of how those omissions may affect results, see: Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., et al. (2018). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2015, Volume I: Secondary school students [Appendix A]. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2017.pdf.
 There is reason to believe that eighth graders over-report binge drinking. For more information, see chapter 4, footnote 27 in Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2001). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2000, Volume 1: Secondary School Students (NIH Publication No. 01-4924). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/vol1_2000.pdf.
 To derive percentages for each racial/ethnic subgroup, data for the specified year and the previous year have been combined to provide more stable estimates. Estimates for white and black youth exclude Hispanic youth and youth of two or more races. Hispanic youth include persons identifying as Mexican American or Chicano, Cuban American, Puerto Rican, or Other Hispanic or Latino, and no other racial/ethnic group.
Child Trends Databank. (2018). Binge drinking. Available at: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=binge-drinking