DataBank Indicator

Heavy Drinking Among Parents

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Among two-parent families in 2014, four percent of fathers and three percent of mothers reported regular heavy drinking.

Importance

While heavy drinking among parents is not necessarily indicative of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, parents who binge drink are at a higher risk for alcohol-related disorders than are parents who do not.[1] In addition, heavy drinking usually results in intoxication, which can lead to homicides, traffic injuries, and domestic violence,[2]
all of which can have a negative impact on children.

Children of alcoholics are more likely to have academic difficulty than are other students, often because alcoholic parents are less likely to provide the supervision, support and intellectual engagement that their children need to succeed in school.[3] In addition, parents who drink alcohol to excess may be more likely to abuse their children due to lowered inhibitions, sharpened aggressive feelings, decreased frontal lobe functioning (which affects one’s ability to deal with unexpected situations), and disrupted neurochemical functions that mediate aggressive behavior, all outcomes of alcohol abuse.[4] Research suggests that between 30 and 40 percent of all incest cases involve an alcoholic parent.[5] Children whose parents have alcohol problems are also at greater risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and problems with cognitive and verbal skills.[6]

According to the Surgeon General, women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should abstain from alcohol, because studies show it can have detrimental effects on an unborn fetus, even in the earliest time after conception, when a woman may not know that she is pregnant.[7] The consequences for children who have been exposed to alcohol before birth may last throughout their lifetimes, and include mental retardation, learning disabilities, conduct disorder, and other serious health problems.[8],[9] One of the most serious outcomes of maternal prenatal alcohol use are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which involve problems with the brain, growth retardation, and facial malformations.[10]

While children of alcoholics have a higher risk than others of developing problems with alcohol abuse themselves, environmental factors, such as stress level, availability of alcohol, and expectations and behaviors of friends, play a large role in determining whether or not a person will develop an alcohol problem.[11]

Note: The current indicator tracks the average amount parents drank in the past year. Previous versions of this indicator tracked frequency of binge drinking.

Trends

48_fig1During the period 2005-2010, an annual average of about 7.5 million U.S. children lived with a parent who had an alcohol use disorder within the past year.[12]

The proportion of parents in two-parent families who drank at least moderately (an average of more than three drinks a week) rose between 2004 and 2014, from 16 to 19 percent. The proportion who drank heavily (for women, an average of more than 7 drinks a week; for men, 14 drinks a week) remained steady, between three and four percent. (Appendix 1)

Between 2004 and 2014, the proportions of both single mothers and mothers in two-parent families who drank at least moderately increased from around eight and a half to eleven percent. The proportion of fathers in two-parent families who drank at least moderately decreased between 2001 and 2007, from 26 to 23 percent, before rising to 27 percent in 2014. The proportion among single fathers has fluctuated between 22 and 34 percent. (Figure 1)

Due to the sampling procedure used to obtain our source data, estimates for the overall population of parents are not available.

Differences by Gender

Fathers are much more likely than mothers to report at least moderate drinking in the past year. For example, in 2014, 27 percent of fathers living in two-parent families reported at least moderate drinking, compared with 11 percent of mothers. (Figure 1) However, the proportions of fathers and mothers who drink “heavily” are similar. (Appendix 1)

Differences by Age

Older mothers are more likely than younger mothers to report moderate or heavy drinking. In 2014, 8 percent of mothers in two-parent families ages 25 to 34 reported drinking at least moderately, compared to more than 12 percent among mothers older than 34. Similarly, only two percent of mothers in two-parent families ages 25 to 34 reported drinking heavily, compared to four percent among mothers older than 44. (Appendix 3) In 2014, there were no significant differences in drinking by age among single mothers, or fathers in two-parent families.

Differences by Receipt of SNAP/Food Stamps

48_fig2Parents in families receiving SNAP benefits (food stamps) drink less than parents not in families receiving SNAP. In 2014, 5 percent of mothers in two-parent families receiving SNAP drank at least moderately, compared with 12 percent in families not receiving the benefits. Among fathers in two-parent families, the proportions were 21 and 28 percent, respectively, and among single mothers, the proportions were nine and 14 percent, respectively. (Figure 2)

Among single mothers, those in families who received SNAP benefits were also less likely to drink heavily (two and five percent, respectively). (Appendix 4) Eligibility for SNAP benefits generally requires having a household income of less than 130 percent of the poverty level. SNAP benefits may not be used for alcohol purchases.

Differences by Race and Hispanic Origin[13]

48_fig3White parents drink more than their black and Hispanic counterparts. Among parents in two-parent families, 23 percent of whites drink at least moderately, compared to 17 and 13 percent of blacks and Hispanics, respectively. (Appendix 1) Among single mothers, whites are the most likely to drink at least moderately (15 percent), followed by blacks (11 percent), and Hispanics (5 percent). (Figure 3)

 

 

 

Differences by Educational Attainment

48_fig4Mothers with a bachelor’s degree are more likely to drink than those with less education. In 2014, 16 percent of mothers in two-parent families who had bachelor’s degrees drank at least moderately, compared with less than 12 percent among those with less education. (Figure 4) Among fathers, there were no significant differences by education in reported moderate or heavy drinking, but fathers in two-parent families with only a high school diploma were more likely to drink heavily than their more-educated peers (six percent, compared with less than three percent, respectively). (Appendix 2)

Differences by Region

There were no significant differences by region in either moderate or heavy drinking.

State and Local Estimates

State estimates for the proportion of children who have ever lived with someone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs are available from the Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health.

International Estimates

None available.

National Goals

Through its Healthy People 2020 initiative,
the federal government has outlined multiple goals related to alcohol
consumption and abuse. While none of the goals directly address heavy drinking
among parents, several of them are related to this issue. Relevant goals
include: increasing abstinence from alcohol before and during pregnancy;
reducing the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); reducing the
proportion of adults engaging in binge drinking; and reducing the proportion of
adults who drink excessively.

More information about these and other goals
related to alcohol consumption and abuse is available here (for pregnant women and FAS) and here (for binge drinking and other excessive drinking)

Related Indicators

Definition

Data are based on reports by parents. Respondents were asked how often in the past year they drank any type of alcoholic beverage, and how many drinks that they had, on average, on those days. Those who reported having more than three drinks a week were considered at least moderate drinkers, while women who had more than seven drinks a week, and men who had more than 14 drinks a week, were considered heavy drinkers. Parents, as defined for this indicator, are adults 18 and older who lived with their own children younger than 18.

This indicator now tracks the average amount that parents drink. Previous versions of this indicator tracked frequency of binge drinking among parents.

Data Source

Original analyses by Child Trends of National Health Interview Survey data, 2001-2014

Raw Data Source

National Health Interview Survey

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

 

Appendix 1 – In Two-Parent Families,2 Percentage of Parents1 Who Were Moderate or Heavy Drinkers3 in the Past Year: 2001-2014

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Moderate or Heavy Drinking 17.3 17.4 17.4 15.8 17.2 17.0 16.2 17.9 19.1 19.1 18.5 18.2 18.5 19.3
Gender
Male 25.9 25.9 26.0 23.8 25.8 24.5 23.1 26.4 27.5 26.6 25.9 24.7 26.4 27.1
Female 8.9 9.1 9.0 8.2 9.0 9.7 9.4 9.3 10.8 11.7 10.8 11.6 10.6 11.2
Age group
18-24 10.5 12.3 11.5 9.1 11.2 11.0 9.6 12.4 13.4 11.6 11.8 10.3 9.7 11.0
25-34 15.5 13.8 14.5 14.2 13.0 14.1 13.9 15.3 16.4 15.8 16.6 16.4 16.0 16.1
35-44 18.9 19.2 18.5 17.0 17.7 18.3 16.6 18.4 19.9 19.7 18.8 16.7 19.8 19.6
45+ 18.8 20.2 20.7 17.6 23.3 19.8 19.8 21.2 21.8 23.1 21.6 23.9 20.9 23.3
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 19.5 19.1 20.0 18.3 19.7 20.1 19.0 20.5 21.6 23.2 21.2 22.5 22.6 23.1
Black, non-Hispanic 11.1 14.4 11.1 10.5 12.1 10.4 12.1 16.0 15.6 14.9 13.6 11.9 13.2 17.0
Hispanic4 13.1 14.4 13.4 12.1 13.2 13.5 11.3 12.2 15.4 12.3 15.3 12.3 13.6 13.3
Non-Hispanic other 10.4 8.6 6.6 7.6 5.6 8.8 12.0 10.2 7.7 8.5 8.6 7.7 9.8
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 18.7 18.5 18.8 17.0 18.8 18.4 17.3 18.6 20.1 20.3 19.7 19.6 19.9 21.1
Below poverty 13.6 13.7 9.8 12.7 11.4 10.2 13.6 11.9 12.0 11.5 12.6 10.4 10.3 8.9
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 12.6 14.5 14.5 13.9 15.7 13.0 13.3 12.5 15.0 13.3 15.7 12.4 13.9 13.0
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 17.5 17.6 17.6 16.0 17.4 17.4 16.5 18.4 19.5 19.9 19.0 19.2 19.3 20.3
Education
Some high school or less 15.0 18.8 15.1 14.3 14.8 13.9 12.9 14.7 17.7 14.8 16.7 13.3 12.8 13.9
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 17.6 17.8 17.8 17.0 17.2 16.9 17.1 18.0 20.3 19.0 18.9 17.9 18.2 18.9
Some college, no degree/AA degree 17.2 15.3 17.9 15.3 16.1 16.9 15.5 16.4 17.7 17.9 17.1 17.2 16.9 19.3
Bachelor’s degree or higher 18.4 18.5 17.9 16.3 19.4 19.0 17.9 20.4 20.3 21.6 20.2 21.2 21.9 21.5
Region
Northeast 19.7 18.4 19.7 18.6 20.2 17.9 20.6 20.7 20.8 22.9 20.8 19.8 20.9 21.4
Midwest 19.1 17.3 18.6 18.1 19.0 18.5 17.1 18.2 18.4 19.9 21.0 18.9 22.0 20.4
South 15.1 17.4 15.6 12.6 14.3 15.9 14.1 16.5 16.9 17.3 16.8 17.3 15.8 17.9
West 17.2 16.8 17.3 16.1 17.6 16.8 15.7 17.6 21.8 18.3 17.0 17.7 17.6 18.8
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Heavy Drinking 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.1 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4
Gender
Male 4.4 4.1 4.6 3.3 4.0 3.6 3.5 5.1 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.7
Female 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.2
Age group
18-24
25-34 2.8 2.3 3.0 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.8 2.9 3.6 3.1 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.0
35-44 3.8 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.2 4.3 3.6 3.2 3.7 2.6 3.6 3.3
45+ 4.3 3.7 4.2 2.7 4.8 3.7 3.3 5.0 5.0 4.9 3.7 4.3 4.4 4.3
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.6 4.0 4.5 4.4 4.4 3.9 4.4 4.4 4.2
Black, non-Hispanic 2.8 4.4 3.7 3.9
Hispanic4 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.2 3.0 3.0 1.9 3.1 1.6 2.2 2.3
Non-Hispanic other
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.3 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.8
Below poverty 4.4 4.4 3.8 3.2 2.7
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 5.0 3.6 3.6 4.4 3.0 3.6 3.4
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 3.6 3.4 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4
Education
Some high school or less 4.9 4.4 4.3 2.7 3.0 2.3 3.4 4.5 7.0 3.5 4.6 2.3 2.9 2.9
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.5 5.3 5.8 5.4 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.8
Some college, no degree/AA degree 3.6 2.8 3.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.1
Bachelor’s degree or higher 2.2 2.8 1.9 1.9 2.9 2.1 2.8 3.5 1.7 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.4 3.1
Region
Northeast 3.6 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.9 4.2 3.1 4.2 3.6 2.5 4.2 4.3
Midwest 4.2 2.7 4.5 3.8 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.2 4.1 2.8
South 3.6 3.8 3.4 2.6 3.3 2.8 3.3 4.2 4.5 3.4 3.9 3.0 3.2 3.5
West 2.7 3.9 3.1 2.8 2.8 3.7 2.5 4.0 4.6 3.8 2.9 4.1 3.1 3.4
– Estimate based on fewer than 20 people and excluded from the table.1 Because drinking data were obtained from a randomly chosen adult within a household, data for single parents and parents in two-parent households cannot be combined.2 Fathers are defined as male adult parents of children under age 18, residing with one or more of their children.

3 Moderate drinkers are those who drank more than three drinks a week, on average. Heavy drinkers are women who drank more than seven drinks a week, and men who drank more than 14 drinks a week, on average.

4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: Original analysis by Child Trends of National Health Interview Survey data 2001-2014.

 

Appendix 2 – In Two-Parent Families,1 Percentage of Fathers2 Who Were Moderate or Heavy Drinkers3 in the Past Year: 2001-2014

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Moderate or Heavy Drinking 25.9 25.9 26.0 23.8 25.8 24.5 23.1 26.4 27.5 26.6 25.9 24.7 26.4 27.1
Age group
18-24 25.3 29.5 26.3 23.6 23.4 27.7 30.3 22.9 23.0 28.1
25-34 25.9 23.3 24.9 23.8 22.9 22.3 22.2 25.5 24.9 24.2 27.2 27.4 25.5 26.4
35-44 27.1 27.7 26.7 24.6 26.0 26.2 23.4 27.5 28.2 26.4 26.9 21.9 28.1 26.7
45+ 23.9 25.0 25.9 22.7 28.4 23.7 23.5 26.2 28.4 29.5 23.8 27.0 25.3 28.0
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 28.2 27.4 29.0 26.5 28.3 28.1 25.2 29.4 30.1 32.0 28.8 29.2 30.4 30.8
Black, non-Hispanic 17.1 21.7 16.4 18.0 19.3 15.4 18.2 23.6 23.0 19.5 19.7 16.6 19.3 23.3
Hispanic4 23.7 26.0 23.4 20.9 23.4 22.9 21.0 21.1 25.1 20.3 23.9 19.4 23.6 23.0
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 26.9 27.2 28.1 25.1 27.8 25.9 23.9 27.0 28.2 28.0 27.0 25.8 27.7 29.2
Below poverty 23.2 21.6 13.4 21.6 20.4 15.8 26.4 19.3 21.4 19.5 20.7 18.0 18.9 14.9
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 21.0 20.6 25.9 22.5 26.1 21.3 23.2 18.2 24.7 21.0 24.7 20.3 24.4 20.8
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 26.0 26.2 26.0 23.9 25.7 24.8 23.1 27.1 27.7 27.4 26.1 25.4 26.7 28.2
Education
Some high school or less 25.3 31.4 24.6 25.1 25.3 21.7 21.1 23.7 29.3 23.5 24.3 21.7 21.6 23.1
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 28.5 28.0 26.0 25.6 26.5 26.5 24.8 27.5 28.6 27.6 26.6 24.1 26.6 26.9
Some college, no degree/AA degree 25.9 22.7 27.7 22.9 26.1 23.4 22.7 23.1 25.0 25.0 25.9 24.1 26.5 29.0
Bachelor’s degree or higher 23.8 24.1 25.3 22.6 25.0 25.4 23.0 29.5 28.2 28.5 26.4 27.0 27.7 27.6
Region
Northeast 30.5 26.1 27.8 26.2 29.1 22.6 30.1 29.6 26.9 32.8 30.5 24.1 27.8 27.4
Midwest 29.1 25.8 28.0 25.3 28.6 25.7 24.2 26.1 27.7 28.5 28.9 25.3 29.2 28.6
South 22.2 26.0 24.1 19.7 20.8 24.4 20.6 25.6 24.6 24.5 21.8 24.2 23.2 25.3
West 25.0 25.7 25.3 26.7 28.2 24.9 20.8 25.6 31.7 24.0 26.2 25.1 26.9 28.1
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Heavy Drinking 4.4 4.1 4.6 3.3 4.0 3.6 3.5 5.1 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.4
Age group
18-24
25-34 4.5 3.6 4.2 3.4 3.4 3.3 4.4 4.2 5.7 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.9
35-44 4.1 5.0 4.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.6 5.9 3.9 3.9 4.1 2.3 3.7 2.9
45+ 4.3 3.3 4.5 2.5 4.8 3.5 5.2 4.4 5.2 3.7 3.2 4.5 4.3
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 4.7 4.6 5.1 3.9 4.4 4.3 4.3 5.6 4.5 5.2 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.2
Black, non-Hispanic
Hispanic4 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.1 3.3 4.9 4.9 2.8 4.2 2.4 3.7 3.5
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 4.2 4.3 4.9 3.3 4.4 3.8 3.7 4.9 4.0 4.4 3.8 3.2 4.0 4.0
Below poverty 7.9 5.8 5.2
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 6.6 4.2 5.0
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 4.4 4.1 4.5 3.1 4.0 3.6 3.3 5.0 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.4
Education
Some high school or less 8.1 6.7 7.4 4.4 4.4 5.4 7.2 11.7 6.3 5.8 3.9
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 6.6 5.8 5.7 4.8 5.4 6.1 4.8 7.1 6.9 7.0 5.7 4.6 5.6 6.2
Some college, no degree/AA degree 3.5 2.9 5.2 3.5 4.4 3.8 3.1 4.1 4.2 3.3 4.3 2.0
Bachelor’s degree or higher 3.8 2.3 2.3 3.1 2.9
Region
Northeast 5.0 5.0 4.2
Midwest 4.7 2.9 6.1 3.6 4.4 4.4 4.1 2.8 4.5 3.1
South 4.4 5.4 4.3 3.3 4.3 3.3 4.1 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.8 3.3 4.0 3.5
West 3.8 4.8 4.1 3.5 3.5 5.6 1.6 5.1 6.5 4.2 4.0 4.8 3.4 4.1
– Estimate based on fewer than 20 people and excluded from the table.1 Because drinking data were obtained from a randomly chosen adult within a household, data for single parents and parents in two-parent households cannot be combined.2 Fathers are defined as male adult parents of children under age 18, residing with one or more of their children.

3 Moderate drinkers are those who drank more than three drinks a week, on average. Heavy drinkers are women who drank more than seven drinks a week, and men who drank more than 14 drinks a week, on average.

4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: Original analysis by Child Trends of National Health Interview Survey data 2001-2014.

 

Appendix 3 – In Two-Parent Families,1 Percentage of Mothers2 Who Were Moderate or Heavy Drinkers3 in the Past Year: 2001-2014

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Moderate or Heavy Drinking 8.9 9.1 9.0 8.2 9.0 9.7 9.4 9.3 10.8 11.7 10.8 11.6 10.6 11.2
Age group
18-24
25-34 7.2 6.0 6.2 6.6 5.2 7.0 6.8 6.6 9.3 8.8 6.5 7.1 8.2 7.9
35-44 10.7 10.9 10.4 9.8 9.7 10.9 9.7 9.4 11.6 13.0 10.7 11.4 11.3 12.5
45+ 10.7 13.1 13.2 9.8 15.8 14.1 14.7 14.3 12.9 14.8 18.6 19.7 14.9 16.0
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 11.0 11.2 11.6 10.7 11.8 12.6 13.0 11.9 13.7 15.3 13.8 15.7 14.9 15.4
Black, non-Hispanic 7.3
Hispanic4 3.2 2.5 2.2 2.8 2.7 3.1 4.0 3.3 5.2 4.6 3.1 3.3
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 10.2 9.8 9.5 9.2 9.8 10.9 10.6 10.0 12.0 12.8 12.0 13.2 12.1 12.7
Below poverty
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 6.5 6.6 5.1 4.2 5.4
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 9.1 9.2 9.3 8.3 9.3 10.1 9.9 9.6 11.3 12.5 11.6 12.8 11.7 12.2
Education
Some high school or less 3.6 3.9 4.5 3.1 3.7 6.4
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 7.0 8.0 8.7 8.0 7.6 7.0 7.9 7.3 10.8 9.1 9.4 9.7 8.0 8.4
Some college, no degree/AA degree 9.7 9.2 9.3 9.1 7.8 11.1 9.7 11.0 11.6 12.6 9.3 11.5 8.1 10.8
Bachelor’s degree or higher 12.5 12.5 11.1 10.0 13.9 12.9 12.8 11.3 12.7 14.9 14.3 15.8 16.4 15.6
Region
Northeast 9.9 11.2 12.1 11.6 12.1 13.2 10.9 11.7 14.8 13.5 11.4 15.6 13.0 14.7
Midwest 9.7 8.9 9.1 11.2 9.8 11.3 10.1 9.8 10.2 11.4 13.0 12.5 13.7 11.8
South 7.7 8.6 7.0 5.7 7.9 7.5 7.7 7.7 8.8 10.5 11.4 10.3 9.1 10.3
West 9.2 8.3 9.4 6.2 7.4 8.9 10.4 9.9 11.4 12.6 7.4 9.7 8.8 9.7
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Heavy Drinking 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.2
Age group
18-24
25-34 2.1 1.7 1.9 2.3
35-44 3.5 3.3 2.4 3.5 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.6 3.3 3.0 3.4 3.6
45+ 4.3 4.3 4.8 4.4 4.6 5.7 4.6 3.7 5.9 4.3 4.3
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.8 3.5 4.3 3.6 3.7 4.6 4.3 4.1
Black, non-Hispanic
Hispanic4
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 2.9 4.4 4.2 3.5 2.9 3.4 0.4 1.7 1.4 3.1 2.4 1.5 3.3 3.6
Below poverty
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.8 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.2 3.4
Education
Some high school or less
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.6 2.8 4.6 3.6 3.0
Some college, no degree/AA degree 3.7 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.1 3.0 3.2 2.9 4.1 2.7 3.6 2.7 4.1
Bachelor’s degree or higher 2.7 3.1 2.3 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.2 2.5 4.2 3.2 3.3 3.8 3.3
Region
Northeast 3.3 4.4
Midwest 3.7 2.5 2.9 4.1 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.7
South 2.8 2.3 2.4 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.9 4.1 2.1 2.9 2.7 2.4 3.5
West 3.0 2.1 3.4 2.9 2.7
– Estimate based on fewer than 20 people and excluded from the table.1 Because drinking data were obtained from a randomly chosen adult within a household, data for single parents and parents in two-parent households cannot be combined.2 Mothers are defined as female adult parents of children under age 18, residing with one or more of their children.

3 Moderate drinkers are those who drank more than three drinks a week, on average. Heavy drinkers are women who drank more than seven drinks a week, and men who drank more than 14 drinks a week, on average.

4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: Original analysis by Child Trends of National Health Interview Survey data 2001-2014.

 

Appendix 4 – Among Single Parents,1 Percentage Who Were Moderate or Heavy Drinkers3 in the Past Year: 2001-2014

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Single Mothers: Moderate or Heavy Drinking 10.3 9.8 9.8 8.7 9.7 8.9 7.9 12.3 10.6 11.7 10.1 10.2 11.2 11.3
Age group
18-24 7.2 9.5 7.8 9.9 14.5 12.1 12.0
25-34 9.7 9.5 10.0 6.8 8.6 8.7 6.8 12.0 10.4 10.3 12.2 10.3 12.6 10.4
35-44 13.2 10.3 12.0 9.7 10.3 8.4 10.2 11.8 9.6 11.5 10.2 12.2 11.1 12.1
45+ 7.3 9.6 10.0 11.5 12.7 9.8 7.5 12.2 11.7 14.7 11.4 9.6 11.8 13.2
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 13.6 12.6 13.2 13.2 14.7 12.4 11.3 18.0 13.9 15.7 12.9 14.8 13.8 15.0
Black, non-Hispanic 8.3 8.5 7.4 4.6 5.3 6.9 4.5 7.0 9.2 10.3 8.6 8.2 10.6 10.6
Hispanic4 4.8 5.9 6.9 4.4 4.6 5.1 6.8 6.4 6.3 4.7 4.2 7.3 5.2
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 12.7 11.5 10.6 10.3 11.5 10.7 8.4 13.5 11.9 15.3 11.8 12.3 13.2 13.4
Below poverty 8.3 8.0 9.2 9.0 6.3 6.1 7.8 11.3 9.2 7.1 7.1 8.2 8.3 8.5
Welfare/TANF
At least one family member received income from welfare/TANF 10.4 6.8 8.8 8.3 8.6 10.8 6.5 6.9 10.3 9.2
No one in family received income from welfare/TANF 10.3 10.3 9.9 9.0 9.8 9.1 8.3 12.6 10.9 11.8 10.5 10.6 11.4 11.6
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 9.1 9.5 9.1 7.5 8.1 8.9 6.2 10.3 10.4 11.0 7.0 9.0 9.3 8.5
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 10.8 10.0 10.2 9.4 10.4 9.0 8.8 13.5 10.8 12.3 12.7 11.4 13.2 14.1
Education
Some high school or less 9.6 6.8 7.4 6.2 7.8 5.1 5.2 9.9 8.3 7.9 7.0 8.0 8.8 9.9
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 8.9 10.7 9.8 8.6 8.1 9.9 5.5 12.9 9.1 13.2 9.3 8.1 10.4 8.1
Some college, no degree/AA degree 12.1 10.1 11.6 8.3 10.6 8.8 9.7 13.1 12.8 11.2 10.4 11.8 12.1 13.0
Bachelor’s degree or higher 10.4 12.6 8.9 13.4 13.8 13.4 12.7 12.7 11.7 15.0 13.9 12.5 13.2 15.0
Region
Northeast 8.1 8.8 12.4 11.9 11.0 8.6 8.5 12.4 9.2 10.3 7.8 8.5 11.4 12.6
Midwest 15.1 13.3 11.5 11.8 10.5 10.8 5.5 12.5 11.2 12.3 11.8 14.7 11.1 12.1
South 8.7 7.8 8.2 6.8 8.4 8.1 7.0 10.2 11.7 11.8 9.8 7.7 11.4 10.7
West 10.1 11.1 9.1 7.2 10.2 8.7 12.4 15.9 9.4 12.0 10.3 11.9 10.9 10.8
Single Fathers: Moderate or Heavy Drinking 6.3 7.0 2.4 4.9 5.1 5.5 8.4 8.4 5.2 5.7 4.1 8.8 5.5 7.3
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Single Mothers: Heavy Drinking 2.8 3.8 3.9 3.5
Age group
25-34 2.5 3.5 4.2 3.7 3.8 3.2 3.4 4.1 3.8 4.8 5.1 3.2
35-44 4.2 3.6 4.8 3.4 3.9 4.6 3.9 3.0 5.3 4.3 4.2 2.8 3.7
45+ 7.1
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 3.4 4.3 5.5 4.7 6.2 4.1 6.2 5.9 4.5 5.8 5.1 5.0 5.5 5.7
Black, non-Hispanic 2.7 3.4 3.4 2.9 5.2 2.4 4.3 4.4 2.5
Hispanic4
Poverty Status
At or above poverty 3.3 3.9 4.4 4.0 4.5 3.9 3.9 4.7 4.2 5.7 3.7 4.1 5.9 4.5
Below poverty 2.8 4.2 4.2 5.0 3.6 2.9 2.8 3.6 3.8 2.8 2.5
Welfare/TANF
At least one family member received income from welfare/TANF
No one in family received income from welfare/TANF 2.8 3.9 4.3 3.4 4.0 3.2 4.2 4.1 3.5 4.8 3.7 3.9 4.6 3.7
SNAP (food stamps)
At least one family member authorized to receive SNAP benefits 4.2 3.5 3.9 3.9 4.1 3.3 4.5 2.9 3.8 3.6 2.4
No one in family authorized to receive SNAP benefits 2.9 3.6 4.4 3.1 4.0 2.8 4.3 3.9 3.8 4.6 4.4 4.0 5.4 4.6
Education
Some high school or less 4.1 3.7
High school graduate/ GED or equivalent recipient 2.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 4.9 2.6 7.4 3.5 3.6 4.8
Some college, no degree/AA degree 4.1 5.8 4.0 3.5 5.4 4.4 5.2 4.4 3.8 4.2 4.2 4.1
Bachelor’s degree or higher
Region
Northeast 5.4
Midwest 5.3 4.9 5.2 6.1
South 2.5 3.3 3.7 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.3 4.3 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.4
West 4.8 6.7 3.5 4.1 4.5
Single Fathers Drinking Heavily At Least Once a Week 6.3 7.0 2.4 4.9 5.1 5.5 8.4 8.4 5.2 5.7 4.1 8.8 5.5 7.3
– Estimate based on fewer than 20 people and excluded from the table.1 Because drinking data were obtained from a randomly chosen adult within a household, data for single parents and parents in two-parent households cannot be combined. Parents are defined as adult parents of children under age 18, residing with one or more of their children.3 Moderate drinkers are those who drank more than three drinks a week, on average. Heavy drinkers are women who drank more than seven drinks a week, and men who drank more than 14 drinks a week, on average.

4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: Original analysis by Child Trends of National Health Interview Survey data 2001-2014.

 

Endnotes


[1]National Center for Health Statistics. (2001) Health,
United States, 2001, with urban and rural health chartbook
. Hyattsville,
Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, p. 36. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus01.pdf

[2]Ibid.

[3]Johnson, J. L. & Leff, M. (1999). Children of
substance abusers: Overview of research findings. Pediatrics, 103(5
Supplement), 1085-1099. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.short

[4]National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at
Columbia University. (1999). No safe haven: Children of substance-abusing
parents
, page 15. Available online at http://www.ncsacw.samhsa.gov/files/NoSafeHaven.pdf

[5]Ibid.

[6]Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.
(2012). More than 7 million children live with a parent with alcohol problems.Data Spotlight. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Substance Abuse
and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/hsgec.pdf

[7]
United States Department of Health and Human
Services. (February 2005). U.S. Surgeon General Releases Advisory on
Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
. News Release. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/news/2005/02/sg02222005.html

[8]National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at
Columbia University. (1999). Op. cit.

[9]Disney, E. R., Iacono, W., McGue, M., Tully, E.,
& Legrand, L. (2008). Strengthening the case: Prenatal alcohol exposure is
associated with increased risk for conduct disorder. Pediatrics, 122(6),
e1225-e1230.

[10]National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental
Disabilities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Facts about
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/fasd/facts.html

[11]National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of
the National Institutes for Health. Genetics of alcohol use disorders,
Available online at
http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders/genetics-alcohol-use-disorders

[12]Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.
(2012). Op. cit.

[13]Hispanics may be any race. In this report, whites and blacks do not include Hispanics.

 

Suggested Citation:

Child Trends Databank. (2015). Heavy drinking among parents. Available at: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=heavy-drinking-among-parents

 

Last updated: November 2015

 

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