DataBank Indicator

Child Care

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Among children ages birth to four whose mothers were employed, 24 percent were primarily cared for by a parent during the hours their mother was working in 2011.

Importance

A substantial percentage of young children spend time in either center- or home-based child care. There is no conclusive evidence that child care, on average, is either better or worse for children than being cared for solely by a parent. However, researchers have found that consistent, developmentally sound, and emotionally supportive care has a positive effect on both children and families.[1] In general, high-quality child care is more beneficial for children’s cognitive, language, and social development than low-quality child care.[2],[3],[4]

Low-income children who attend intensive, high-quality early education programs have greater school success, higher graduation rates, lower levels of juvenile crime, decreased need for special education services, and lower teen pregnancy rates than their peers.[5],[6] Nonetheless, no more than half of U.S. child care centers meet minimum American Public Health Association/ American Academy of Pediatrics (APHA/AAP) standards, with most rated poor to mediocre in quality.[7] Cost, as well as other barriers, may limit access to high-quality non-familial care. In many states, the cost to parents of early education is nearly twice as expensive as a year of tuition at a four-year public college.[8]

Trends

21_fig1The types of care employed mothers predominantly use by for their young children (ages birth to four) have changed in the past 35 years, but utilization of some types has remained steady. Between 1977 and 1993, the proportion of children in center-based programs increased greatly, from 13 to 30 percent. After decreasing to 23 percent in 1997, it has since increased, and was at 26 percent in 2011. Another strong trend has been a consistent decline in the percentage of children who were cared for by a non-relative at home, which fell from 29 to 14 percent between 1977 and 2011. The percentage of children who were cared for by a relative followed a generally upward trend until1999, when it was 30 percent. However, for the past decade, this proportion has remained fairly steady: between 25 and 27 percent. Between 1977 and 2011, the percentage of children whose primary caregiver during working hours was a parent has fluctuated between 22 and 29 percent. (Figure 1)

Trends in out-of-school care for older children (ages 5 to 14) whose mothers are employed are similar to those outlined above. The percentage who participated in enrichment activities has decreased since 1995. For instance, among 12- to 14-year-olds, this proportion fell from 42 percent in 1995 to 18 percent in 2011. Since 1997, the proportion of grade-school students who spent some time caring for themselves has also decreased. In 1997, 48 percent of 12- to 14-year-olds, and 21 percent of 9- to 11-year-olds, spent some time taking care of themselves while their mothers were working. In 2011, the percentages were 32 and 10 percent, respectively. (Appendix 2)

Differences by Age

Among children not yet in school, the proportion in parental care only declines with age, with 30 percent of children less than a year old cared for solely by a parent, and 22 percent of children at ages three to four. Care at home by a relative or non-relative shows a similar pattern, with 30 and 20 percent of children under a year old receiving at-home care by a relative or non-relative, respectively; among children ages three to four, these figures are 22 and 11 percent, respectively. Use of center-based programs increases as children get older, with 15 percent of those under one year, 26 percent of those one to two years, and 30 percent of those three to four years in this type of care, in 2011. (Appendix 1)

21_fig2Among grade-schoolers, the proportion who spend some time taking care of themselves when their mother is at work and they are not in school increases with age. While only two percent of children ages five to eight take care of themselves, 10 percent of those ages nine to eleven, and 33 percent of those ages 12 to 14 do so. Out-of-school enrichment activities are most common among nine- to eleven-year-olds (21 percent), followed by younger and older children (18 percent, each). The prevalence of all other forms of care generally declines with age. (Figure 2)

Differences by Race/Hispanic Origin[9]

21_fig3Among children ages birth through four whose mother is employed, black children are least likely to be in parental care, at 17 percent, while Hispanic children are most likely, at 29 percent. Black children are most likely to be in center-based care, at 31 percent, while Hispanic children are least likely, at 14 percent. Both black and Hispanic children are more likely to be cared for by a relative in the home, at 35 and 36 percent, respectively, than are their white and Asian peers (at 24 and 25 percent, respectively). However, white and Asian children are more likely to be cared for in a home by a non-relative (at 16 and 15 percent, respectively), compared with 11 percent of Hispanic children, and 8 percent of black children. (Figure 3)

Differences by Poverty Status

Poor and low-income children, ages birth to four, who have employed mothers are less likely to be in a center-based program than are children in families with incomes at least twice the federal poverty level (19 and 22 percent, respectively, versus 29 percent, in 2011). This gap has fluctuated over time, but was largest in 2010. Poor and low-income children are more likely to be cared for by a relative at home than are children from families with higher incomes (33 and 30 percent, respectively, versus 25 percent, in 2011). Low-income children are more likely than either poor children, or children in families with higher incomes, to be cared for by a parent during working hours (31 percent, versus 26 and 21 percent, respectively). (Appendix 1)

Differences by Mother’s Education

Children whose mothers have less education are less likely to be in non-parental care during their mother’s working hours. Fifty-eight percent of children whose mothers lack a high school diploma, compared with 70 percent of those whose mothers have a college degree or more, use non-parental care as their primary form of childcare. For children cared for by a parent, data showed a different pattern in 2011, partially because a high proportion of mothers with little education reported no regular source of care: 19 percent of mothers with no high school diploma, compared with 9-11 percent of mothers with more education.[10] Child care by a relative is used by 20 percent of college-educated mothers, and by 36 percent of mothers who have less than a high school education. Twelve percent of children whose mothers did not have a high school diploma primarily used center-based care, compared with 19 percent whose mothers had a high school diploma or GED, 22 percent of those whose mothers had some college, and 35 percent of those whose mother had at least a bachelor’s degree (in 2011). (Appendix 1)

Differences by Mother’s Employment Status

21_fig4Although data on child care arrangements for children of mothers who are not working are limited, some findings stand out. Among children ages birth to four who were not in school in 2011, 72 percent of those whose mothers were not working had no regular care arrangement,[11] including 83 percent of those whose mothers were not in the labor force, 51 percent of those whose mothers were looking for work, and 18 percent of those whose mothers were in school. Multiple care arrangements were present for four percent of those whose mothers were not in the labor force, for12 percent among those whose mothers were looking for work, and for 30 percent of those whose mothers were in school. (Figure 4)

In comparison, 12 percent of children of employed mothers had no regular care arrangement.[12] Thirty-three percent of children with employed mothers were in center-based care, compared with 12 percent whose mothers were not employed.[13] Eighteen percent of children ages birth to four were in multiple care arrangements: 27 percent of those with employed mothers, and 8 percent of those whose mothers were not employed.[14] Among children with employed mothers, the percent with multiple care arrangements ranged from 30 percent (among those whose mothers were employed part-time), to 24 percent (among those with self-employed mothers. (Figure 4)

State and Local Estimates

None available.

International Estimates

Kamerman, S. B. (2000). Early childhood education
and care: An overview of developments in the OECD countries. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 7-79. (See Table 1.21)

For countries within the European Union, the Eurostat database on income and living conditions includes information on formal and parental child care.

National Goals

None.

Related Indicators

Definition

Parental care is defined as care by a father or mother during the mother’s working hours. Non-parental care is defined as care in a home by either a relative (other than a parent, such as a sibling or grandparent) or non-relative (such as a nanny or home-based day-care), or care in a center-based program such as a day care center, pre-kindergarten, nursery school, Head Start, or other early childhood program. For children in kindergarten and beyond, non-parental care can also include self-care. Self-care is defined as looking after oneself regularly before or after school.

Data Sources

Raw Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program
Participation

http://www.census.gov/sipp/

 

Appendix 1: Percentages of Children, Birth through Age 4, with Employed Mothers, by Primary Type of Care Arrangement, Selected Years, 1985-2011

1977 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Parental Care1 25.8 23.8 24.2 22.7 22.9 28.7 22.1 24.1 23.5 22.5 21.5 22.8 24.8 24.4
Race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 24.5 25.7 26.2 23.9 23.5 25.6 24.9 24.7
Black3 11.8 13.2 13.1 15.8 15.2 15.9 19.8 19.8
Hispanic 18.0 23.9 19.9 23.5 18.2 18.5 25.4 29.4
Asian/Pacific Islander 17.7 21.7 14.6 30.1 26.9
Poverty Status
Below federal poverty level (FPL) 24.4 27.7 25.8 19.0 25.1 29.4 22.3 26.1
100-199% of FPL 28.4 27.1 28.9 27.2 24.6 24.6 31.9 31.0
200% of FPL and above 19.8 22.7 21.4 21.5 20.0 20.8 23.1 21.3
Family Type
Two married parents 26.2 26.7 27.4 26.2 24.6 25.7 27.7 27.2
Mother only 3.4 15.3 11.5 12.7 12.8 15.4 17.5 17.6
Age of Child
Less than 1 year 24.4 24.2 27.6 28.3 25.7 25.6 28.9 27.5
1-2 years 22.5 26.2 24.2 24.0 24.0 22.8 24.9 23.1
3-4 years 21.0 21.9 21.2 18.9 17.5 21.7 23.0 24.4
Mother’s level of education
Less than high school 23.2 27.2 23.3 17.4 24.1 28.6 29.5 21.9
High school graduate/GED 22.9 24.5 23.7 27.0 23.1 21.7 27.4 25.4
Vocational/technical/some college 23.7 25.3 25.3 21.3 23.1 23.0 27.5 27.5
College graduate 19.0 21.5 21.3 21.3 17.7 21.9 20.4 21.7
1977 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
All Non-Parental Care4 73.8 75.4 75.5 75.8 75.7 69.9 76.8 82.1 72.1 74.3 69.1 69.4 68.1 67.2
Race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 74.8 79.3 69.7 73.4 66.4 67.3 67.6 66.8
Black3 86.2 102.9 81.5 80.4 79.0 76.7 71.8 73.4
Hispanic 79.8 76.2 74.3 70.6 71.3 70.6 71.5 61.9
Asian/Pacific Islander 79.3 71.8 75.5 61.6 66.8
Poverty Status
Below federal poverty level (FPL) 74.5 81.7 68.7 77.2 65.2 61.4 66.8 63.9
100-199% of FPL 67.5 77.0 65.9 69.5 65.3 66.1 60.5 61.6
200% of FPL and above 79.2 83.8 74.7 75.1 72.5 72.5 71.7 70.7
Family Type
Two married parents 72.7 77.8 67.5 70.1 64.8 65.9 63.8 63.8
Mother only 91.7 94.9 85.7 85.1 81.6 78.5 84.1 75.7
Age of Child
Less than 1 year 75.5 80.8 67.0 68.0 63.0 67.5 62.3 65.1
1-2 years 77.4 79.8 73.7 75.2 68.6 70.3 70.8 72.0
3-4 years 76.5 85.0 72.7 75.2 74.5 69.4 67.6 62.9
Mother’s level of education
Less than high school 76.0 80.3 70.2 79.6 65.1 57.6 63.0 58.2
High school graduate/GED 76.0 82.1 70.6 70.9 66.9 70.6 67.3 66.3
Vocational/technical/some college 75.0 79.9 70.8 74.1 69.2 71.5 64.1 66.1
College graduate 79.8 84.7 75.5 75.6 72.2 68.6 73.0 70.4
1977 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Care
in Home by a Relative5
30.9 24.1 21.7 21.1 23.1 23.5 25.3 23.4 27.1 30.1 25.8 27.4 27.2 27.3
Race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 20.9 21.0 22.6 24.9 20.7 22.5 23.4 24.2
Black3 37.2 30.6 38.5 37.9 35.6 31.8 30.7 35.0
Hispanic 38.8 27.2 37.7 38.7 36.7 40.9 41.7 36.2
Asian/Pacific Islander 58.9 29.1 36.2 21.1 25.3
Poverty Status
Below federal poverty level (FPL) 35.8 33.4 36.6 38.2 35.4 29.9 36.0 33.1
100-199% of FPL 25.6 29.7 27.6 39.0 29.1 34.4 32.5 30.0
200% of FPL and above 22.5 19.8 25.2 25.7 24.6 24.6 23.8 25.0
Family Type
Two married parents 21.3 20.7 22.4 25.1 23.3 23.6 22.7 23.9
Mother only 40.2 31.2 41.4 43.2 33.6 37.2 38.8 35.7
Age of Child
Less than 1 year 28.0 26.8 30.7 32.3 31.5 32.5 29.0 30.4
1-2 years 28.7 24.2 29.1 30.5 27.6 27.7 30.3 31.1
3-4 years 21.1 21.2 23.7 28.7 24.6 25.2 23.3 21.8
Mother’s level of education
Less than high school 36.2 35.6 37.4 47.1 28.3 32.5 38.4 36.1
High school graduate/GED 30.2 28.5 30.2 34.4 30.4 37.1 33.3 34.3
Vocational/technical/some college 22.7 21.7 27.8 29.9 29.1 29.9 28.7 29.8
College graduate 16.8 16.2 19.3 19.1 17.8 16.6 20.8 20.3
1977 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Care
in Home by a Non-Relative6
29.4 28.2 28.5 28.9 25.1 23.3 21.6 31.2 22.3 21.1 18.2 16.8 14.7 14.0
Race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 22.8 31.6 23.7 23.9 20.3 18.7 16.6 16.2
Black3 15.7 33.0 14.7 13.4 14.9 13.8 12.1 7.7
Hispanic 19.7 26.5 23.2 20.0 14.1 14.7 12.6 11.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 8.5 16.6 11.1 12.5 15.4
Poverty Status
Below federal poverty level (FPL) 18.9 18.5 16.3 19.3 13.2 12.3 13.4 11.8
100-199% of FPL 17.2 23.7 19.5 15.4 14.6 10.5 10.5 9.4
200% of FPL and above 23.3 35.3 24.4 23.5 20.3 19.8 16.5 16.4
Family Type
Two married parents 21.4 31.7 23.3 22.1 18.0 17.0 14.9 14.4
Mother only 22.0 29.3 19.0 18.7 18.8 16.4 15.5 13.2
Age of Child
Less than 1 year 28.3 38.3 22.7 19.7 16.5 18.4 16.8 19.5
1-2 years 24.4 31.0 24.0 24.0 19.7 18.6 16.3 14.5
3-4 years 16.0 28.5 20.4 18.9 17.4 14.5 12.1 11.2
Mother’s level of education
Less than high school 19.5 23.0 19.3 14.2 18.0 12.5 15.5 10.0
High school graduate/GED 19.2 25.4 20.7 15.7 15.4 13.7 13.0 12.3
Vocational/technical/some college 20.2 30.0 18.5 23.6 15.9 16.2 10.8 14.1
College graduate 27.0 40.2 29.6 26.6 23.3 20.6 19.2 15.6
1977 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Center-Based
Program7
13.0 23.1 24.4 25.8 27.5 23.1 29.9 27.5 22.7 23.1 25.1 25.2 26.2 25.9
Race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 31.1 26.7 23.4 24.6 25.4 26.1 27.5 26.4
Black3 33.3 39.3 28.3 29.1 28.5 31.1 29.0 30.7
Hispanic 21.3 22.5 13.4 11.9 20.5 15.0 17.2 14.4
Asian/Pacific Islander 11.9 26.1 28.2 28.0 26.1
Poverty Status
Below federal poverty level (FPL) 19.8 29.8 15.8 19.7 16.6 19.2 17.3 19.0
100-199% of FPL 24.7 23.6 18.8 15.1 21.6 21.2 17.5 22.2
200% of FPL and above 33.4 28.7 25.1 25.9 27.6 28.1 31.4 29.3
Family Type
Two married parents 30.0 25.4 21.8 22.9 23.5 25.3 26.2 25.5
Mother only 29.5 34.4 25.3 23.2 29.1 24.9 29.9 26.8
Age of Child
Less than 1 year 19.2 15.7 13.6 16.0 15.0 16.6 16.5 15.2
1-2 years 24.3 24.6 20.6 20.7 21.3 24.0 24.2 26.4
3-4 years 39.4 35.3 28.6 27.6 32.5 29.7 32.2 29.9
Mother’s level of education
Less than high school 20.3 21.7 13.5 18.3 18.8 12.6 9.1 12.1
High school graduate/GED 26.6 28.2 19.7 20.8 21.1 19.8 21.0 19.7
Vocational/technical/some college 32.1 28.2 24.5 20.6 24.2 25.4 24.6 22.2
College graduate 36.0 28.3 26.6 29.9 31.1 31.4 33.0 34.5
“-” Indicates data not available

1Parental care includes care only during mother’s working or school hours.

2For race and Hispanic-origin data in this table: From 1995 to 2002, following the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) asked respondents to choose one race from the following: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The Census Bureau also offered an “Other” category. Beginning in 2004, following the 1997 OMB standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the SIPP asked respondents to choose one or more races from the following: White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. The Census Bureau also offered an “Other” category. All race groups discussed in this table from 2004 onward refer to people who indicated only one racial identity within the racial categories presented. People who responded to the question on race by indicating only one race are referred to as the race-alone population. The use of the race-alone population in this table does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. Data from 2004 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

31995 data are for non-Hispanic blacks only.

4Non-parental care includes care in home by a relative or non-relative, and center-based care. It does not include self-care, having no regular arrangement, or school. Data may include slight over-estimates, due to ties in calculating the primary type of care.

5Care in home by a relative includes sibling, grandparent, or other relative care, in either the child or the caregiver’s home.

6Care in home by a non-relative includes care by a non-relative in the child’s home and home-based day care.

7Center-based programs include day care centers, nursery schools, preschools, and Head Start programs. It does not include kindergarten or elementary school.

Sources: Data for 1977-1991: Child Trends calculations based on US Census Bureau. Who’s minding our preschoolers? Detailed tables 1994. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Data on Child Care. Historical table A. Available at: http://www.census.gov/data/tables/1994/demo/ppl-81.html. Data for 1993: Child Trends calculations based on US Census Bureau. Who’s minding our preschoolers? Detailed tables 1993. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Data on Child Care. Available at: http://www.census.gov/topics/families/child-care/data.html. Data for 1995-2011: Child Trends calculations based on US Census Bureau. Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Detailed tables {various years}. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Data on Child Care. Available at: http://www.census.gov/topics/families/child-care/data.html.

 

Appendix 2: Percentages of Children, Ages 5 to 14, with Employed Mothers, by Type of Out-of-School Care During Mother’s Working Hours, Selected Years, 1995-2010

1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Ages
5 to 8
Parental
Care
Mother 6.4 5.5 4.8 3.8 6.4 7.3 5.1
Father 27.5 30.0 28.5 22.0 25.4 29.5
Non-parental
Care
Grandparent 20.2 24.0 25.5 20.3 20.7 21.6 20.9
Care in Home by Another Relative 6.9 10.4 9.2 7.7 6.8 7.8 6.5
Care in Home by a Non-Relative 26.3 20.7 20.0 14.2 11.2 11.0 10.1
Center-based Care1 8.7 16.6 15.2 14.0 14.0 12.4 13.9
Enrichment Activities2 25.8 15.8 18.6 15.6 16.2 14.4 17.9
Self-Care 4.8 4.3 3.1 2.8 2.2 2.2 2.4
1995 1997 1999 2002 2005 2010 2011
Ages 9 to 11
Parental Care
Mother 5.9 5.3 4.5 4.2 5.7 6.0 5.4
Father 25.9 26.9 25.6 19.9 22.2 25.1 24.1
Non-parental Care
Grandparent 17.2 19.9 19.7 16.1 15.2 17.9 20.9
Care in Home by Another Relative 6.5 7.9 6.3 5.8 6.5 6.3 6.1
Care in Home by a Non-Relative 15.8 15.9 14.8 9.9 8.7 8.2 6.3
Center-based Care 5.4 5.9 4.4 6.2 3.4 4.2
Enrichment Activities 38.6 25.3 25.1 21.6 18.3 20.9 21.1
Self-Care 17.0 21.1 15.8 15.1 11.2 10.5 10.2
Ages 12 to 14
Parental Care
Mother 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.6 4.2 4.9 3.7
Father 20.1 20.5 20.6 16.2 17.0 20.2 20.3
Non-parental Care
Grandparent 8.0 12.6 11.6 9.7 8.9 9.8 11.4
Care in Home by Another Relative 3.4 4.9 4.1 3.5 3.5 4.0 3.0
Care in Home by a Non-Relative 3.6 6.8 4.9 3.9 4.3 4.0 3.1
Center-based Care 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.1
Enrichment Activities 41.9 23.0 24.0 20.2 15.3 18.9 17.8
Self-Care 43.0 48.2 42.9 39.3 37.2 35.7 32.5
“-” Indicates data not
available
1Center-based programs include day care centers, nursery schools, preschools, and Head Start programs. It does not include enrollment in kindergarten or elementary school.
2Enrichment activities include sports, lessons, clubs, and before- and after-school programs.
Sources: Reproduced from Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015, Table Fam3C. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Based on U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.

 

Endnotes


[1]Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent
Care. (2005). Quality early education and child care from birth to
kindergarten. Pediatrics, 115(1), 187-191.

[2]For a summary of the research on these issues, see
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Child Development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. J. P. Shonkoff & D. A. Phillips, Eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069882/html/

[3]Peisner-Feinberg, E.S., Burchinal, M.R., Clifford, R.M., Culkin, M.L., Howes, C., Kagan, S.L., & Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child-care quality to children’s cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72(5),
1534-1553.

[4]National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (2000). The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. Child Development, 71(4), 960-980.

[5]Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care. Op. cit.

[6]Campbell, F. A. (2000). Early learning, later success: The Abecedarian study: Executive summary. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina. Available at: http://fpg.unc.edu/resources/early-learning-later-success-abecedarian-study

[7]Patten, P. and Ricks, O.B. (2000). Child care quality: An overview for parents. Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447969.pdf

[8]Giannarelli, L., Barsirmantov, J. (2000). Child Care Expenses of America’s Families. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310028_occa40.pdf

[9]Hispanics may be any race. Estimates for whites and blacks do not include Hispanics.

[10]U.S. Census Bureau. Table 1B:  Child Care Arrangements of Preschoolers Under 5 Years Old Living with Mother, by Employment Status of Mother and Selected Characteristics:  2011.  Who’s Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Spring 2011 – Detailed Tables. Table 2B. Available at: http://www.census.gov/data/tables/2008/demo/2011-tables.html

[11]Ibid. Table 1B.

[12]Ibid. Table 1B.

[13]Ibid. Table 1B.

[14]Ibid. Table 1B.

 

Suggested Citation:

Child Trends. (2016). Child care. Available at: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=child-care

 

Last updated: May 2016
 

 

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