Indicator List for Early Childhood Development

Small Child

Child Trends researchers study young children from birth through early elementary school with a focus on understanding how the experiences children have across different settings can promote their optimal development and well-being. Our research experts work with the federal government, states and foundation partners to evaluate state policy initiatives such as Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS), kindergarten readiness assessments, professional development initiatives for the early childhood workforce, and strategies to promote access and affordability of high quality early care and education. Child Trends’ early childhood team has produced nationally-recognized resources and research on school readiness, early care and education quality measurement, implementation science, family engagement, and coaching and consultation in early childhood settings. Child Trends contributes to the Early Childhood Data Collaborative (ECDC), which provides tools and resources to encourage state policy change and provides a national forum to support the development and use of coordinated state ECE data systems.

Indicator List for Early Childhood Development

51_fig1

Attitudes Toward Spanking

In 2012, according to a nationally representative survey, 77 percent of men, and 65 percent of women 18 to 65 years old agreed that a child sometimes needs a “good hard spanking.” This proportion has declined modestly since 1986 among women, while approval among males, after declining into the early 1990s, remained steady since then.

90_fig1

Breastfeeding

There has been substantial progress in recent years in getting mothers to breastfeed their infants, and the latest available national data met Healthy People 2010 goals. 

21_fig1

Child Care

Among children ages 0-4 whose mothers were employed, 24 percent were primarily cared for by a parent during the hours their mother was working in 2011.

44_fig1

Children with Limitations

According to report by a parent or other household respondent, nearly one in five children ages five to 17 (18 percent) had one or more limitations in 2011.  These may include limitations in normal physical activities due to health conditions and impairments, difficulty seeing, difficulty hearing, diagnosed learning disabilities, or difficulty bathing or showering without assistance.

07_fig1

Early School Readiness

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey (NHES), “School Readiness Parent Interview,” 1993, “Parent Interview,” 1999, and “School Readiness Survey,” 2007. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=004

96_fig1

Family Meals

Children in poorer families, and those whose parents had less education, are more likely to have meals together with their families than are children with wealthier or more educated parents.

97_fig1

Head Start

While enrollment in Head Start increased slightly between the 2006-07 and the 2010-11 program years, this growth has not kept up with increases in child poverty, and the latest data show a decline in enrollment .