Indicator List for Infants & Young Children

Small Child

The earliest years for children are ones of rapid growth, and create the foundations of social, emotional, language, and cognitive development.

Indicator List for Infants & Young Children



In 2013, nearly one-eighth of males ages three to 17 (12 percent) had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by a doctor or other health professional, according to parental report.


Adopted Children

Overall, adopted children in the U.S. fare about as well as children in the general population.  However, many adopted children bring to their new families a history of adverse early experiences that may make them more vulnerable to developmental risks.



In the United States, asthma is more common among boys than it is among girls. In 2013, nine percent of males under age 18 were reported to have asthma, compared with seven percent of females.


Attitudes Toward Spanking

In 2014, according to a nationally representative survey, 76 percent of men, and 65 percent of women, 18 to 65 years old, agreed that a child sometimes needs a “good hard spanking.” This proportion has declined modestly since 1986 among women, while approval among males, after declining into the early 1990s, has remained steady.


Autism Spectrum Disorders

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had risen markedly in recent years.  However, it is too soon to know whether these data indicate a true increase in the numbers of children with this condition, or a growing recognition of the diagnosis by parents and health professionals.



There has been substantial progress in recent years in getting mothers in the U.S. to breastfeed their infants, and the latest available national data have met Healthy People 2010 goals, but not those for 2020.



In 2014, 13 percent of children, ages two through 17, experienced physical bullying, and 36 percent experienced teasing or emotional bullying, in the past year.


Child Care

Among children ages birth to four whose mothers were employed, 24 percent were primarily cared for by a parent during the hours their mother was working in 2011.


Child Maltreatment

The rate of substantiated child maltreatment, as of 2013, has shown modest declines in the past six years, and is at a level lower than at any time since 1990. The rates of physical and sexual abuse have declined the most, and rates of neglect have declined the least.

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