Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS)

OVERVIEW

The Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS) is a school-based education and skills-building program designed to decrease alcohol abuse among children and adolescents. It is initially implemented in fifth and sixth grade, and then again in tenth grade. Experimental studies indicate that elementary school participants showed an increased knowledge of the course curriculum at posttest, but did not experience any change in behavior related to alcohol use or misuse.

An evaluation that followed students through high school found that although the sixth grade curriculum did not have an impact on outcomes in high school, the tenth grade curriculum had a positive impact on alcohol misuse, but not alcohol use or drinking and driving. In another evaluation of the tenth grade curriculum, that used administrative data for students who obtained a driver’s license, a marginal short-term decrease in serious offenses (substance use, reckless driving) was found the first year after licensure for those who received the tenth grade curriculum, but these effects dissipated over time.

DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM

Target population: Children and adolescents aged 10 to 18

AMPS is a teacher-delivered, school-based intervention that is designed to raise student awareness of the short-term repercussions of alcohol use and the risks associated with alcohol misuse and teach students useful skills for dealing with commonly encountered alcohol use situations and social pressures. Curriculum activities and materials include worksheets, pamphlets, games, class discussions, role-plays, and use of audio-visual materials. To involve parents and caregivers, the program sends letters home and assigns homework activities. To promote program fidelity, teachers are offered self evaluation tools and sent letters periodically. The fifth and sixth grade curriculum is delivered in four 45-minute sessions, and the tenth grade curriculum is delivered in five 45-minute sessions. The tenth grade curriculum is designed to supplement the skills and knowledge taught in the fifth and sixth grade curriculum.

EVALUATION(S) OF PROGRAM

Study 1: Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Butchart, A. T., & Campanelli, P.C. (1986). Prevention of adolescent alcohol misuse: An elementary school program. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11(2), 259-282.

Evaluated population: The study was implemented with 5,635 fifth and sixth grade students in 49 schools in six school districts near Ann Arbor, Michigan. This evaluation presents the analysis of data from the 2,280 students who completed both a pre-test and a post-test.

Approach: Schools were matched on achievement test scores, socioeconomic status, and racial mix of the student body and then randomly assigned to pre-test or no pre-test and treatment, treatment plus a booster in sixth grade, or a no treatment control. The study assessed students’ awareness of curriculum content, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse at pretest and at posttest two months after the intervention.

Results: Levels of alcohol use were low at these ages for both treatment and control groups. Treatment increased students’ awareness of the curriculum, but had no impact on alcohol use or misuse.

Study 2: Campanelli, P.C., Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Butchart, A.T., & Renner, D. S. (1989). Pretest and treatment effects in an elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program. Health Education Quarterly, 16(1) 113-130.

Evaluated population: This study used the same sample as study 1. This evaluation presents the analysis of data from the 4,911 students who completed a post-test. Approach: See study 1 for randomization procedure. Post-test data were collected two months after the intervention. The outcomes examined were awareness of curriculum content, alcohol use and misuse, health locus of control, susceptibility to peer pressure, and family, peer, and school adjustment. The analysis adjusted for clustering.

Results: The treatment did have a positive impact on awareness of curriculum content. However, it did not have a significant impact on alcohol use and misuse, health locus of control, susceptibility to peer pressure, or family, peer, and school adjustment.

Study 3: Shope, J. T., Dielman, T. E., Butchart, A. T., Campanelli, P.C., & Kloska, D. D. (1992). An elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program: A follow-up evaluation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53(2), 106-121.

Evaluated population: This is a longitudinal follow-up of the same students from the previous two studies. At the time of this follow-up, students were at the end of their 7th and 8th grade years.  A total of 3,833 students completed this follow-up. Approach: See study 1 for randomization procedures. One year after the initial intervention, students in the treatment plus booster schools who were in the 5th grade when the intervention began received three booster sessions one week apart when they were in the 6th grade. These sessions were similar to the sessions from the original curriculum. Data were collected at 26-month follow-up through self-administered questionnaires on susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, awareness of curriculum content, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse.

Results: Results were analyzed separately for students that began the intervention in 5th grade as opposed to 6th grade, since only those who began in 5th grade could have received the booster sessions.

5th grade

For students who began the study in fifth grade there was no impact on susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, alcohol use, or alcohol misuse. There was an impact of the treatment over time on knowledge of the curriculum content with both treatment groups increasing their knowledge over time, while the control group stayed the same. In addition, the treatment plus booster group had higher knowledge of the curriculum content compared with the treatment only group. However, when looking at the sub-indices for the curriculum content knowledge scale, there was a significant impact on knowledge of pressure to use alcohol, but not on knowledge of resistance skills or knowledge of the effects of alcohol.

6th grade

For students who began the study in sixth grade there was no impact on susceptibility to peer pressure, alcohol use, or alcohol misuse. Students in the control group decreased their internal health locus of control over time, while students in the treatment group remained stable. In addition, there was an impact of the treatment over time on knowledge of the curriculum content with both the treatment groups increasing their knowledge over time, while the control group stayed the same. However, when looking at the sub-indices for the curriculum content knowledge scale, there was only a significant impact on knowledge of pressure to use alcohol, but not on knowledge of resistance skills or knowledge of the effects of alcohol.

Study 4:  Shope, J.T., Copeland, L.A., Maharg, R., & Dielman, T.E. (1996). Effectiveness of a high school alcohol misuse prevention program. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 791-798.

Evaluated population: A total of 2,031 tenth grade students from nine high schools in four of the six school districts in Studies 1-3, including 1100 students who had been part of the Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study in sixth grade were evaluated. Data was only analyzed from the 1041 students who completed a tenth grade pre-test, tenth grade post-test, and twelfth grade post-test.

Approach: Tenth grade classes were randomly assigned to receive the tenth grade curriculum or to be in the control condition. Data were collected on alcohol misuse prevention knowledge, alcohol use and misuse, and driving after drinking at tenth grade pre-test, tenth grade post-test, and twelfth grade post-test. Data were collected on refusal skills at tenth grade post-test only.

Results: Students who had received the tenth grade curriculum were less likely to report alcohol misuse at twelfth grade post-test and had marginally better refusal skills at tenth grade post-test. They also had higher knowledge scores at tenth and twelfth grade post-tests. There was no treatment impact on alcohol use or driving after drinking. There was no impact of sixth grade curriculum on any of the outcomes.

Study 5:  Shope, J.T., Elliott, M.R., Raghunathan, T.E., & Waller, P.F. (2001). Long-term follow-up of a high school misuse prevention program's effect on students' subsequent driving. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(3), 403-410.

Evaluated population: This is a longitudinal follow-up of the schools from the previous studies and involved 4,635 tenth grade students from six school districts in southeastern Michigan, in the. About 52 percent of the students were male, 85 percent were white, 64 percent of students lived with two parents, and 60 percent were non-drinkers. Approach: Classes were randomly assigned to the intervention (tenth grade curriculum) or a control curriculum. Data were collected on alcohol use and misuse and parental attitudes towards alcohol use from post-test surveys two months after the intervention and from follow-up surveys two years later. State administrative data from 1986 to 1997 were obtained for participants who obtained a driver's license by June 1997, relating to traffic offenses and motor vehicle accidents. Relevant offenses included: (a) those that involved alcohol; (b) those that were classified as "serious" by the Secretary of State's office (such as reckless driving or vehicular homicide); (c) those that led to the assignment of three or more points to the driver; or (d) those that involved drug offenses not associated with driving.

Results: During the first year after licensure, program students experienced fewer serious traffic offenses when compared with control students, though the impact was only marginally significant. The program impact was stronger among students who reported drinking less than one drink per week at baseline and among the small minority of students whose parents had not shown disapproval of alcohol use. There was no impact on serious offenses for years two through seven.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION

Contact for more information: Deborah Kloska

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan P.O. Box 1248 Ann Arbor, MI 48106–1248 Phone: 1-734-647-0587 Fax: 1-734-647-4575 E-mail: ddkloska@umich.edu

References:

Campanelli, P.C., Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Butchart, A.T., & Renner, D. S. (1989). Pretest and treatment effects in an elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program. Health Education Quarterly, 16(1) 113-130.

Dielman, T. E., Shope, J. T., Butchart, A. T., & Campanelli, P.C. (1986). Prevention of adolescent alcohol misuse: An elementary school program. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11(2), 259-282.

Shope, J.T., Copeland, L.A., Maharg, R., & Dielman, T.E. (1996). Effectiveness of a high school alcohol misuse prevention program. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 791-798.

Shope, J. T., Dielman, T. E., Butchart, A. T., Campanelli, P.C., & Kloska, D. D. (1992). An elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program: A follow-up evaluation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53(2), 106-121.

Shope, J.T., Elliott, M.R., Raghunathan, T.E., & Waller, P.F. (2001). Long-term follow-up of a high school misuse prevention program's effect on students' subsequent driving. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(3), 403-410.

KEYWORDS: Children (3-11), Adolescents (12-17), Middle School, High School, Males and Females (Co-ed), School-based, Skills Training, Alcohol Use, Social Skills/Life Skills, Other Safety

Program information last updated 3/22/13