DataBank Indicator

Juvenile Detention

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Nearly 55,000 young persons were detained in residential placements in 2013; however, the rate of juvenile detention has been declining since 1999. Still, males and racial/ethnic minorities are heavily overrepresented in this population.

Importance

Juvenile delinquency[a] has potentially high stakes for both individuals and society as a whole. Delinquency is linked to higher crime rates in adulthood and other negative outcomes.[1] One estimate suggests that between 50 and 75 percent of adolescents who have spent time in juvenile detention centers are incarcerated later in life.[2]

The juvenile justice system is based on the premise that adolescents have needs and capacities different from adults’. Adolescents are still developing mentally, physically, and emotionally, and they are forming their identities. As a result, juveniles who break the law should be treated differently than adults who do.[3] Following a rise in juvenile crime in the late 1980s and early 1990s, ‘get tough on crime’ policies led to an increase in the number of children being tried as adults and being committed to adult facilities.[4] Such settings can be harmful to adolescents. Juveniles may face higher risks of rape, assault, and suicide when placed in adult prisons, although reliable statistics are lacking.[5] Multiple studies show, however, that those who are transferred to adult facilities are more likely to reoffend.[6]

Even in juvenile facilities, though, children may be victimized by staff members. According to a national survey conducted in 2012, an estimated 10 percent of young people in juvenile facilities reported sexual victimization by staff members or a peer.[7] Moreover, most facilities in the United States do not deal effectively with the issues that lead youth to offend. Recidivism rates are comparable to those of adult offenders.[8]

Mental health needs are often urgent for adolescents in the justice system. Many have mental illness (estimates range as high as 70 percent, with prevalence among girls as high as 80 percent, compared with 20 percent among the total adolescent population.[9],[10] In juvenile detention facilities, many of these problems go untreated or are dealt with inadequately.[11] Suicide rates in juvenile detention facilities are more than four times higher than for adolescents overall.[12] Suicide is even more likely for adolescents confined in isolation.[13]

Trends

88_fig1Rates of juveniles in residential placement have fallen for more than a decade. In 2013, 173 juveniles per 100,000 population (54,000 total) were in residential placements, compared with 356 per 100,000 in 1997. The rate per 100,000 fell among whites, blacks, and Hispanics about equally (between 50 and 65 percent). (Figure 1) In that period, rates of residential placement for Asian youth fell the most (86 percent), while rates for American Indians fell the least (32 percent). Appendix 1)

 

Differences by Gender

88_fig2Males are much more likely than females to be in residential placement. In 2013, 86 percent of all juveniles in residential placement were male. This proportion has fluctuated, but in general has not changed since 1997.  (Appendix 1)

Female adolescents are committed to facilities at higher rates than in some past years, although the rates in 2013 were lower than the 20-year peak in 1997.[14] According to one study, the majority of females in the juvenile justice system report experiencing physical, sexual, or emotional victimization. Many girls first enter the system as runaways or for other status offenses (offenses not considered illegal for adults), and cite abuse at home as one of the main reasons for leaving. Once in the system, they often do not receive adequate treatment, and may have different needs than their male counterparts.[15]  In 2013, eleven percent of female adolescents in residential placement were there because of status offences, compared with four percent of male adolescents. However, this gap is shrinking: in 1997, 23 percent of girls in residential placement were there because of status offences, versus four percent of boys. (Figure 2)

Differences by Type of Offense

Most juveniles in residential placement (95 percent in 2013) are there because of delinquency. The other five percent have committed status offenses (behaviors that are illegal for underage persons but not for adults, such as running away, incorrigibility [i.e., “beyond the control of parents, guardians, or custodians”], and truancy) as their most serious offense.[16] In 2013, 25 percent of juveniles in residential placement had violent crimes[17] as their most serious offense, and 19 percent had property crimes[18] as their most serious offense. Only one percent had committed criminal homicide. Seven percent had committed drug-related offenses, and 11 percent had as their most serious offense disturbances to the public order (Appendix 2)

Differences by Race and Hispanic Origin[19]

88_fig3In 2013, Asian and white males had the lowest rates of placement in juvenile detention (49 and 162 per 100,000 population, respectively). Hispanic males had a rate of 296 per 100,000, followed by American Indian males at 496, and black males at 804 per 100,000).  (Figure 3)

As in the case of males, female black and American Indian adolescents had the highest rates of placement in residential detention (113 and 167 per 100,000, respectively, in 2013). White females were also less likely to be in residential placement (35 per 100,000 in 2013) than were Hispanic females (45 per 100,000). Asian females were the least likely to be in residential placement, with a rate of 8 per 100,000. (Figure 3)

Rates of residential placement for Hispanic, Asian, and black adolescents have been decreasing since 1997, while rates for white adolescents began to decline in 2001.  (Figure 1) For American Indian adolescents, rates increased from 1997 to 2001, then declined through 2013, with the exception of a small uptick in 2006. (Appendix 1)

State and Local Estimates

State estimates of the number of juveniles in
residential placements or corrections facilities through 2013 are available
from the KIDS COUNT Data Center.

Further subgroup breaks by state through 2013 are
available from the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement.

International Estimates

None available.

National Goals

None.

What Works to Make Progress on This Indicator

See Child Trends’ LINKS database (“Lifecourse Interventions to Nurture Kids Successfully”), for reviews of many rigorously evaluated programs, including the following which have been shown to be effective at reducing or preventing incarceration of young adults:

Also see: Greenwood, P. (2008). Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders. The Future of Children, 18(2),
185-210; and

Henggeler, S. W. & Schoenwald, S. K. (2011).
Evidence-based interventions for juvenile offenders and juvenile justice
policies that support them. Social Policy Report, 25(1), 3-20; and

Lipsey, M. W., Howell, J. C., Kelly, M. R.,
Chapman, G., and Carver, D. (2010). Improving the effectiveness of juvenile justice programs: A new perspective on evidence-based practice. Center for
Juvenile Justice Reform, Georgetown University.

Related Indicators

Definition

Juveniles (under age 18) in residential placement are defined as those who were assigned a bed in a juvenile residential custody facility in the U.S. on the last Wednesday in October.

Rates are computed per 100,000 juveniles ages 10 through the upper age of each state’s juvenile court jurisdiction. The number of children younger than 10 in residential placement is not large enough to warrant the inclusion of younger age groups in the denominator of rate calculations.  States’ upper age limits of original juvenile court jurisdiction in 2008 are available from the National Institute of Corrections.

Data do not include those juveniles in adult facilities or those juveniles held exclusively in drug treatment or mental health facilities.

Data Sources

National Center for Juvenile Justice (2015). Easy access to the census of juveniles in residential placement 1997-2013, (online tool). Available at: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/asp/selection.asp

Raw Data Source

OJJDP’s Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011, and 2013

http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/series/241

 

Appendix 1 – Juveniles in Residential Placement:1 Selected Years, 1997-2013

1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
Number in Placement (Thousands) 105 108 104 97 93 87 71 61 54
Percentage of Those in Placement Rate per 100,0003
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 356 355 334 303 289 272 225 196 173
Age
12 & younger 2.1 3.7 1.8 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.3
13 years 4.4 6.0 4.3 4.2 3.7 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.6 121 161 108 93 80 68 50 48 46
14 years 11.0 12.1 10.1 10.2 9.8 8.8 8.4 8.6 8.7 294 324 258 234 212 179 144 128 114
15 years 20.2 19.5 18.7 19.0 18.9 17.9 17.8 17.2 17.5 533 531 478 439 398 357 298 255 228
16 years 26.8 24.3 25.9 25.7 26.5 26.6 27.6 26.8 26.1 722 650 656 599 546 519 453 388 339
17 years 23.4 22.0 23.9 24.8 25.6 26.7 28.2 28.4 27.9 623 586 619 576 548 513 457 403 360
18 & older 12.0 12.5 15.4 14.3 14.1 15.6 14.0 14.4 14.9
Race/Hispanic origin2
White 37.5 38.0 39.6 38.6 35.0 34.0 32.4 32.4 32.4 201 208 208 189 170 157 128 112 100
Black 39.9 39.3 39.0 38.0 40.2 40.8 40.9 40.0 39.8 968 937 857 742 743 714 606 521 464
Hispanic 18.4 18.2 17.3 19.1 20.5 20.8 22.0 22.7 22.7 468 435 360 335 309 284 228 202 173
Asian 2.1 2.0 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.6 195 178 119 110 80 71 47 36 28
American Indian 1.5 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 490 542 556 468 476 416 369 361 334
1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
Males 86.4 86.5 85.5 84.9 85.0 86.4 86.7 86.4 85.7 599 599 556 502 479 458 380 330 290
Percentage of Males in Placement Rate per 100,0003
Total Males in Placement (Thousands) 91 93 89 89 79 75 61 53 46
Age
12 & younger 2.0 3.6 1.8 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.3
13 years 4.0 5.6 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.3 187 254 165 142 124 110 81 77 72
14 years 10.1 11.4 9.2 9.6 9.3 8.3 8.0 8.1 8.4 453 514 394 362 332 284 231 205 183
15 years 19.3 18.7 17.7 18.1 18.3 17.3 17.3 16.7 17.1 857 859 753 694 638 579 488 417 373
16 years 26.9 24.3 25.8 25.4 26.3 26.3 27.4 26.7 25.7 1,210 1,092 1,088 981 898 864 758 651 562
17 years 24.4 22.8 24.8 25.6 26.1 27.2 28.7 28.8 28.2 1,088 1,016 1,062 978 925 875 782 686 610
18 & older 13.3 13.6 16.8 15.6 15.3 16.6 15.0 15.4 16.0
Race/Hispanic origin2
White 35.7 36.6 38.4 37.5 33.5 32.8 31.4 31.4 31.4 322 337 336 304 270 254 209 182 162
Black 40.9 40.0 39.7 38.5 41.2 41.7 41.6 40.9 40.9 1,688 1,623 1,466 1,256 1,275 1,238 1,049 903 804
Hispanic 19.3 19.0 17.9 19.8 21.2 21.5 22.7 23.4 23.1 823 764 622 577 530 494 397 350 296
Asian 2.2 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.6 346 309 203 185 139 119 80 60 49
American Indian 1.4 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.7 759 894 894 732 698 621 544 535 496
1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
Females 13.6 13.5 14.5 15.1 15.0 13.6 13.3 13.6 14.3 99 99 99 94 88 76 61 54 50
Percentage of Females in Placement Rate per 100,0003
Total Females in Placement (Thousands) 14 15 15 15 14 12 9 8 8
Age
12 & younger 2.7 4.2 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.3
13 years 6.9 8.5 6.3 5.9 5.1 4.1 3.9 4.4 5.2 52 63 48 40 34 23 18 18 19
14 years 16.9 16.7 15.2 14.0 12.9 12.0 11.1 11.5 10.8 126 124 115 99 85 68 52 47 41
15 years 25.8 24.3 24.7 23.9 22.6 22.2 21.3 20.5 20.1 190 185 188 171 146 123 97 84 77
16 years 26.8 24.3 26.0 27.0 27.8 28.2 29.1 27.3 28.0 202 181 197 195 174 154 131 110 106
17 years 16.7 16.8 18.9 20.5 22.8 23.7 25.2 26.2 25.7 125 126 146 148 146 128 112 104 97
18 & older 4.3 5.2 7.1 6.9 7.5 8.7 8.0 8.6 8.7
Race/Hispanic origin2
White 49.1 47.0 46.8 44.9 43.3 42.0 38.9 39.2 38.6 74 72 73 68 64 54 42 38 35
Black 33.3 34.8 35.1 35.1 34.4 35.2 36.4 34.6 33.3 224 228 227 210 193 170 146 125 113
Hispanic 12.7 12.8 13.2 14.8 16.4 16.6 17.6 18.7 20.3 91 86 83 81 76 63 50 46 45
Asian 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.0 0.7 0.5 38 40 31 31 19 20 12 11 8
American Indian 2.4 2.9 2.6 2.5 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.4 211 224 206 195 248 205 190 182 167
‡ Numbers are too small to yield a reliable rate.

1The Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement collects data from all juvenile residential custody facilities in the U.S., asking for information on each youth assigned a bed in the facility on the last Wednesday in October.

2“Hispanic” ethnicity includes persons regardless of race. These persons are not included in other race categories.

3 Rates are calculated per 100,000 juveniles ages 10 through the upper age of each state’s juvenile court jurisdiction.

Source: National Center for Juvenile Justice (2013). Easy access to the census of juveniles in residential placement 1997-2013, (online tool). Available at: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/asp/selection.asp

 

Appendix 2 – Juveniles in Residential Placement1  by Most Serious Offense, Number, Percent, and Rate, Selected Years, 1997-2011

1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
Number in Placement (Thousands) 105 108 104 97 93 87 71 61 54
Percentage of Those in Placement Rate per 100,0002
Delinquency3 93.5 95.6 95.1 95.0 94.9 96.1 95.7 96.4 95.3 335 341 319 289 274 261 215 189 165
Person4 33.4 34.8 33.4 34.3 34.1 35.9 36.7 37.4 36.8 119 124 112 104 99 97 83 73 64
Criminal Homicide 1.8 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 6 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
Sexual Assault 5.3 6.9 6.5 7.7 7.3 6.8 6.6 6.4 7.4 19 25 22 23 21 18 15 12 13
Robbery 8.9 7.4 7.0 6.4 7.2 8.6 9.9 9.3 9.1 32 26 23 20 21 23 22 18 16
Aggravated Assault 9.0 9.2 8.2 7.8 7.8 8.4 8.6 8.6 7.7 32 33 27 24 23 23 19 17 13
Simple Assault 6.3 6.9 7.7 8.4 7.9 7.8 7.7 8.5 8.4 22 24 26 25 23 21 17 17 15
Other Person 2.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.3 3.0 7 11 10 10 8 8 6 6 5
Property5 30.4 29.2 28.1 27.8 25.0 24.3 24.1 23.9 23.6 108 104 94 84 72 66 54 47 41
Burglary 11.9 11.2 11.0 10.8 9.7 9.8 10.2 10.9 10.0 42 40 37 33 28 27 23 21 17
Theft 6.9 6.3 5.6 5.8 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.3 25 23 19 18 14 14 12 11 9
Auto Theft 6.2 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.0 4.2 3.5 2.9 3.1 22 20 20 17 14 11 8 6 5
Arson 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1
Other Property 4.5 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3 3.9 4.5 16 17 16 14 13 12 10 8 8
1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
  Percentage of Those in Placement Rate per 100,0002
Delinquency3
Drug 8.6 9.0 8.7 8.3 8.6 8.2 7.0 7.0 6.5 31 32 29 25 25 22 16 14 11
Trafficking 2.7 2.7 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0 10 10 8 6 5 5 3 2 2
Other Drug 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.7 6.5 5.6 5.8 5.5 21 22 21 19 19 18 13 11 10
Public Order6 9.2 9.7 10.0 10.0 10.7 12.7 11.5 11.9 11.2 35 36 35 31 31 34 26 23 19
Weapons11 4.0 3.7 3.1 3.1 4.0 4.7 4.3 4.3 4.0 14 13 10 9 11 13 10 8 7
Alcohol 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Other Public Order 5.0 5.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 7.7 7.0 7.4 7.2 20 22 23 21 19 21 16 14 12
Technical Violation7 11.8 13.0 14.8 14.6 16.5 15.1 16.4 16.1 17.2 42 46 49 44 48 41 37 31 30
Violent Crime Index8 25.0 24.8 22.7 22.8 23.5 25.0 26.4 25.5 25.4 89 88 76 69 68 68 59 50 44
Property Crime Index9 25.9 24.3 23.4 23.1 20.4 19.8 19.8 20.0 19.1 92 86 78 70 59 54 44 39 33
Status Offense10 6.5 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.1 3.9 4.3 3.6 4.7 21 14 15 14 14 11 10 7 8
Running Away 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1
Truancy 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.6 1.1 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 2
Incorrigibility 2.7 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.8 9 6 6 5 6 4 3 3 3
Curfew Violation 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Underage Drinking 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Other Status Offense 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2013
Percentage of Those in Placement Rate per 100,0002
Males in Placement (Thousands) 91 93 89 89 79 75 61 53 46
Males
Delinquency3 96.0 96.9 96.6 96.5 96.5 97.2 96.8 97.5 96.5 578 583 539 486 463 445 368 322 280
Violent Crime Index8 26.9 26.4 24.3 24.6 25.4 26.7 28.2 27.4 27.5 161 158 135 124 122 122 107 90 80
Property Crime Index9 27.0 25.0 24.4 24.1 21.3 20.4 20.5 20.9 19.8 162 150 136 121 102 93 78 69 57
Status Offense10 4.0 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.5 2.8 3.2 2.5 3.5 21 16 17 16 16 13 12 8 10
Females in Placement (Thousands) 14 15 15 15 14 12 9 8 8
Females
Delinquency3 77.4 87.4 86.0 86.7 86.0 88.8 88.6 89.3 88.6 79 87 87 82 75 67 54 49 45
Violent Crime Index8 12.9 14.7 13.2 12.7 12.5 14.1 14.6 13.9 12.8 13 14 13 12 11 11 9 8 6
Property Crime Index9 18.8 19.8 17.9 17.6 15.9 15.9 15.1 14.1 15.2 19 19 18 17 14 12 9 8 8
Status Offense10 22.6 12.6 14.0 13.3 14.0 11.2 11.4 10.7 11.4 21 12 13 12 12 8 7 6 6
1The Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement collects data from all juvenile residential custody facilities in the U.S., asking for information on each youth assigned a bed in the facility on the last Wednesday in October.

2Rates are calculated per 100,000 juveniles ages 10 through the upper age of each state’s juvenile court jurisdiction.

3An offense that would be considered illegal if committed by an adult.

4Offenses against persons. (e. g. violence).

5Offenses against property. (e. g. theft).

6Offenses against the public order.

7Violations of probation, parole or valid court orders; acts that go against the conditions of probation or parole.

8Includes criminal homicide, violent sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.

9Includes burglary, theft, auto theft, and arson.

10A non-delinquent/non-criminal offense; an offense that is illegal for underage persons but not adults.

11Actual or attempted illegal sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or accessory.

Source: National Center for Juvenile Justice (2013). Easy access to the census of juveniles in residential placement 1997-2013, (online tool). Available at: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/asp/selection.asp

 

Endnotes


[a]
“Juveniles” generally refers to those under age 18, but the definition varies
by state; those who fall under juvenile court jurisdiction may be under 17, for
example. Delinquency is defined as behavior that would be considered illegal
if committed by adults.


[1]Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1991). On the relationship of past to future participation in delinquency. Criminology, 29(2), 163-189.

[2]Estimates vary depending on how recidivism is measured and what time period is used.

[3]Bernard, T. J. (1991). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[4]Bilchik, S. (1999). Juvenile justice: A century of change [Electronic Version]. 1999 National Report Series, Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/9912_2/contents.html. . Also see Child Trends DataBank indicator: Young Adults in Jail or Prison.

[5]Flaherty, M. G. (1983). The national incidence of juvenile suicide in adult jails and juvenile detention centers. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 13(2), 85-94.

Hayes, L. M. (2009). Characteristics of juvenile suicide in confinement [Electronic Version]. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved December 21, 2009 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/214434.pdf.

Schiraldi, V., & Zeidenberg, J. (1997). The risks juveniles face when they are incarcerated with adults [Electronic Version] from http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/97-02_REP_RiskJuvenilesFace_JJ.pdf.

Schiraldi, V., & Zeidenberg, J. (1999). The Florida Experiment: An analysis of the impact of granting prosecutors discretion to try juveniles as adults [Electronic Version] from http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/99-07_REP_FLExperiment_JJ.pdf.

[6]Redding, R. E. (August, 2008). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/AbstractDB/AbstractDBDetails.aspx?id=242419

[7]Beck, A. J., Cantor, D., Hartge, J., & Smith, T. (2013). Sexual victimization in juvenile facilities reported by youth, 2012 [Electronic Version] (NCJ 241708). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Available at:http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=4656

[8]Mendel, R. A. (2011). No place for kids: The case for reducing juvenile incarceration. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available at: http://www.aecf.org/m/resourcedoc/aecf-NoPlaceForKidsFullReport-2011.pdf

[9]Kamradt, B. (2000). Wraparound Milwaukee: Aiding youth with mental health needs [Electronic Version]. Juvenile Justice, 7, 14-23 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjjnl_2000_4/wrap.html.

[10]
Shufelt, J. L. & Cocozza, J. L. (2006). Youth with mental health disorders in the juvenile justice system: Results from a multi-state prevalence study. National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice. Available at http://www.unicef.org/tdad/usmentalhealthprevalence06(3).pdf.

[11]Hammond, S. (2007). Mental health needs of juvenile offenders. Washington, D.C.: National Conference of State Legislatures. Available at http://www.ncsl.org/print/cj/mentaljjneeds.pdf.

[12]Hayes, L. M. (2000). Suicide prevention in juvenile facilities [Electronic Version]. Juvenile Justice, 7, 24-32. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/jjjnl_2000_4/sui.html

[13]Ibid.

[14]Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2011, October 16). OJJDP statistical briefing book. Online. Available at: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/crime/JAR_Display.asp?ID=qa05230

[15]Hoyt, S., & Scherer, D. (1998). Female juvenile delinquency: Misunderstood by the juvenile justice system, neglected by social science. Law and Human Behavior, 22(1), 81-107.

[16]More-specific definitions of incorrigibility vary by state. For more information see Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (n.d.). Deinstitutionalization of status offenders promising practices nomination form [Electronic Version] from http://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/DSOpromisingpractices2009.pdf

[17]The violent crime index includes criminal homicide, violent sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.

[18]The property crime index includes burglary, theft, auto theft, and arson.

[19]Hispanics may be of any race. Estimates of whites and blacks in this report do not include Hispanics.

 

Suggested Citation:

Child Trends DataBank. (2015). Juvenile detention. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=juvenile-detention

 

Last updated: December 2015

 


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