Head Start

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Enrollment in Head Start decreased between the 2011-12 and 2013-14 program years, from 979,000 to 916,000 children, but Head Start enrollees increased as a proportion of all young children in poverty.

Importance

Head Start and Early Head Start are federally-funded programs designed to help children in low-income families prepare for school. In addition to education, Head Start provides health and social services, and encourages parental involvement in all aspects of the program.

One rigorous national evaluation, the Head Start Impact Study, found gains for Head Start children in pre-reading, pre-writing, vocabulary and literacy skills. Children assigned to participate in Head Start also had fewer behavior problems, better overall physical health, less hyperactivity, and more access to dental care than did children with comparable backgrounds who did not participate. More positive effects were found for children who entered the program as three-year-olds than for those entering as four-year-olds.[1] Another study found that four-year-olds participating in Head Start had better receptive language and phonemic awareness skills than four-year-olds of similar backgrounds who were wait-listed for the program.[2] Other studies find that children who attended Head Start are more likely to stay in school and have lower rates of grade retention in early elementary school.[3] Head Start participants are also more likely to be fully immunized,[4] less likely to be overweight or obese,[5] and to have better access to health care.[6]

Head Start programs also have benefits for the parents of the children attending. In comparison with a group of families with similar backgrounds, parents of Head Start children are more likely to report good health and safety practices than are parents of children not attending.[7] First-year findings from the Head Start Impact Study also showed that parents of children attending Head Start were more likely to read to their children frequently, less likely to use physical punishment, and more likely to engage in educational activities with their children. However, Head Start parents were not significantly more likely to use better safety practices.[8]

The Head Start Impact Study will report findings for children over time. Studies to-date of the long-term effects of Head Start have had less rigorous research designs. Some of these studies find that initial increases in IQ and academic performance attributed to Head Start fade over time.[9] However, such findings may be inconclusive, because the children who attend Head Start are often the most disadvantaged, and their subsequent school experiences may differ, even from those with otherwise similar characteristics. For example, one study found that children who had attended Head Start were in lower quality (e.g., less safe, less academically rigorous) middle schools in eighth grade, which might explain why some of the positive gains fade over time.[10]

Children are eligible for Head Start if their families’ incomes are below the poverty line, or if they are eligible for public assistance. Children in foster care, or those who are experiencing homelessness, are also eligible, regardless of income. Additionally, at least ten percent of slots in Head Start programs are reserved for children with diagnosed disabilities, and without regard to income.[11] However, despite higher rates of eligibility, certain groups, such as children of immigrants, may be especially unlikely to enroll.[12]

Trends

97_fig1According to a survey of parents, between 1991 and 2005, the percentage of all children ages three to four participating in a Head Start program remained fairly constant, ranging between nine and eleven percent, and was at nine percent in 2005.[13]

Between the program years 2006-2007 and 2011-2012, the number of children ages birth through three enrolled in Early Head Start increased from 85,000 to 151,000. As a percentage of children of that age in poverty,[14] that represents an increase from three to four percent. In program year 2013-2014, enrollment fell to 145,000 children, but remained at four percent of children in poverty. (Figure 1)

Between program years 2006-2007 and 2010-2011, Head Start enrollment increased from 975,000 to 993,000, which, as a proportion of the number of children ages three to five in poverty, represents a decline from 42 to 33 percent. While program enrollment fell to 916,000 in 2013-2014, coverage increased to 34 percent of children in poverty. (Figure 1)

Differences by Age

Most children in Early Head start are under the age of three, and most of the children in Head Start are three or four. In 2013-14, Early Head Start enrollment was about evenly divided among children younger than one, one-year-olds, and two-year-olds. Four percent were three years old. (Appendix 1) In Head Start, 54 percent of enrollees were four years old, and 40 percent of enrollees were three. Among three-year-olds, enrollment was 41 percent of those in poverty, and among four-year-olds, enrollment was 58 percent of those in poverty. (Appendix 2)

Differences by Enrollment Type

In 2013-14, seven percent of enrollees in Early Head Start qualified because they were homeless, and three percent because they were in foster care. Another two percent who qualified had parental incomes between 100 and 130 percent of the federal poverty level, and four percent had parental incomes greater than that (reasons vary); the balance were primarily children in families with incomes below the poverty level. Many of the enrollees had been in Early Head Start previously. In 2013-14, 29 percent were enrolled for their second year in the program, and 15 percent were enrolled for a third year or more. (Appendix 1)

In Head Start, only three percent of enrollees were homeless, and two percent were foster children. Three percent had parents with incomes between 100 and 130 percent of the federal poverty level, and another six percent had parental incomes greater than that; the balance were primarily children in families with incomes below the poverty level. Of all children in Head Start, 28 percent were in their second year of the program, and four percent were in their third year or more. (Appendix 2)

Differences by Race/Hispanic Origin [15]

97_fig2In 2013-14, about one in three children enrolled in the Head Start programs were Hispanic (35 percent of Early Head Start, and 38 percent of Head Start, which includes Migrant Head Start, a primarily Hispanic program). These compositions closely mirrored the Hispanic composition of children in poverty in these age groups. (Figure 2)

97_fig3As a percentage of same-aged children in poverty, there are wide differences in enrollment by race. For Early Head Start, enrollment among American Indians and Alaska Natives is eight percent (as a percentage of children ages birth to three in poverty); for multi-racial children , six percent ; four percent, each, among white and black children, and three percent among Asian children. (Figure 3) Thirteen percent of enrollees have some other or unspecified race. (Appendix 1)

For Head Start, enrollment among multi-racial children is 50 percent (as a percentage of children ages three to five in poverty), 49 percent among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 35 percent among Asian children, 33 percent among black children, and 25 percent among white children. (Figure 3) Twelve percent of enrollees have some other or unspecified race. (Appendix 2)

State and Local Estimates

While percentages are not available, the number of children enrolled in Head Start programs in 2004 through 2014, by state, are available here.

International Estimates

None available.

National Goals

None.

Related Indicators

Definition

Head Start enrollment includes children in Migrant Head Start. Percentages by race, Hispanic origin, and primary language include pregnant mothers enrolled in Early Head Start and Migrant Head Start.

Data for children in poverty include all children, related to the householder, living in civilian housing. The poverty data do not include children in foster care.

Data Source

Data on number and percentage enrollment: The Administration for Children and Families, Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. {various years}. Head Start Program Information Report (PIR). http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/mr/pir

Poverty data for percentages: US Census Bureau. (2015). Current Population Survey: CPS Table Creator. Available at: http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html

Raw Data Source

Head Start administrative data.

http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/mr/pir

 

Appendix 1: Early Head Start Enrollment, Percentages by Selected Characteristics, and as Percentages of Children (Ages Birth through Three) in Poverty: Program Years 2006-2007 to 2013-2014

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Total child enrollment 85,007 85,211 83,682 120,433 148,812 151,342 150,100 145,308
Percentage of total child enrollment
Age
Less than one 28.9 29.1 28.5 31.2 30.2 29.4 28.7 28.6
One 31.0 30.8 30.9 32.7 32.0 31.9 31.8 32.0
Two 33.3 33.9 34.2 31.7 34.0 34.8 35.6 35.4
Three 6.7 6.1 6.4 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9
Enrollment characteristics2
Homeless - - 3.0 4.8 5.7 6.2 6.5 6.6
Foster children 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.7
Parental income above Federal Poverty Level 4.6 4.7 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.8 5.6 6.0
100-130% FPL - - 2.0 2.2 1.9 1.8 1.6 4.1
More than 130% FPL - - 3.6 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.9
Length of enrollment
Enrolled for second year 30.5 30.8 30.2 21.9 30.3 29.8 29.6 28.7
Enrolled for third year or more 12.3 13.1 14.4 10.2 8.9 12.5 14.2 14.8
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Percentage of total enrollment (includes pregnant women)
Hispanic origin
Hispanic 30.9 32.2 32.4 33.8 34.2 34.3 34.7 35.0
Not Hispanic 69.1 67.8 67.6 66.2 65.8 65.7 65.3 65.0
Race
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.7 5.5 5.6 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.6
Asian 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6
Black or African American 25.4 24.9 25.2 24.8 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.1
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4
White 43.1 41.0 42.5 42.8 43.6 43.5 44.8 45.6
Biracial or multi-racial 7.5 8.5 8.4 8.9 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.9
Other race 0.2 0.3 10.7 11.2 10.2 10.9 9.7 8.8
Unspecified race 16.3 17.9 5.9 5.8 5.1 4.4 4.1 4.0
Primary language at home
English 75.3 74.3 74.8 73.5 73.2 73.6 73.6 73.1
Spanish 20.4 21.5 21.1 22.3 22.5 22.0 22.0 22.0
Other language 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.9
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
As a percentage of all children in poverty, ages 0-3 1 2.5 2.5 2.3 3.0 3.6 3.8 3.8 4.1
Age
Less than one 2.8 2.7 2.5 3.8 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.8
One 3.1 2.9 2.7 3.9 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.9
Two 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.7 5.2 5.3 5.6 5.9
Three 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6
Hispanic origin
Hispanic 2.6 2.5 2.2 3.1 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.1
Not Hispanic 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.4 4.2 4.5 4.5 4.7
Race
American Indian or Alaska Native 8.1 12.8 6.4 9.6 9.8 9.7 5.7 7.5
Asian 2.1 2.0 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.7 2.9
Black or African American 2.5 2.3 2.3 3.1 3.7 4.1 4.2 3.8
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 10.6 14.7 2.1 6.4 4.1 7.3 2.6 5.3
White 2.0 1.8 1.7 2.2 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.6
Biracial or multi-racial 5.4 7.0 5.3 5.3 5.1 6.5 6.0 5.7
1There are children enrolled who are not in poverty (six percent in 2013-14) or for whom poverty status is not determined (25 percent in 2013-14, including children in foster care, homeless children, and children in families receiving TANF or Supplemental Security Income). However, the number of children in poverty in a given year is a close approximation of eligible children.

2Enrollment characteristics represent how the child qualified for the program, and are not comprehensive. For instance, a child who is homeless may also have a parental income of between 100 and 130% of the federal poverty level, but would be included only in the homeless category. The remaining children qualified either because parental income was below the federal poverty line, or because they were participating in SSI (disability) or TANF.

Sources: Data on number and percent enrollment: The Administration for Children and Families, Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. {various years}. Head Start Program Information Report (PIR). Author. Poverty data for percentages: US Census Bureau. (2013). Current Population Survey: CPS table creator. Available at: http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html

 

Appendix 2: Head Start Enrollment, Percentages by Selected Characteristics, and as Percentages of Children (Ages Three through Five) in Poverty: Program Years 2006-2007 to 2013-2014

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Total child enrollment 974,626 976,132 963,502 983,758 993,107 978,869 964,071 916,312
Percentage of total child enrollment
Age
Less than one 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4
One 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6
Two 1.8 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.7
Three 38.9 39.2 38.7 38.8 38.6 39.1 40.1 40.4
Four 54.9 54.7 55.2 55.7 54.6 55.9 55.2 54.3
Five 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.3 1.7
Enrollment characteristics3
Homeless - - 1.6 2.3 2.6 4.6 3.2 3.4
Foster children 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7
Parental income above Federal Poverty Level 6.1 6.2 7.8 7.5 7.2 6.5 7.6 8.5
100-130% FPL - - 5.2 4.7 4.8 4.1 5.1 5.5
More than 130% FPL - - 2.6 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 3.0
Length of enrollment
Enrolled for second year 28.6 28.9 28.9 28.9 27.8 28.1 27.4 27.8
Enrolled for third year or more 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.5
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Percentage of total enrollment (includes pregnant women)
Hispanic origin
Hispanic 35.1 36.0 35.9 36.6 37.3 37.5 37.6 38.3
Not Hispanic 64.9 64.0 64.1 63.4 62.7 62.5 62.4 61.7
Race
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.1
Asian 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Black or African American 30.5 29.9 30.2 29.8 29.0 29.5 29.5 29.4
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7
White 39.4 38.9 39.2 39.9 40.6 40.9 41.7 42.0
Biracial or multi-racial 4.7 6.3 7.7 7.3 7.7 8.4 9.2 9.4
Other race 0.4 0.2 10.3 10.5 11.1 10.8 8.8 9.1
Unspecified race 18.7 18.1 6.3 6.4 5.4 4.2 4.6 3.3
Primary language at home
English 69.4 68.9 69.5 69.5 69.4 69.9 70.0 69.9
Spanish 25.9 26.3 25.9 25.8 26.1 25.6 25.3 25.2
Other language 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.8
2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
As a percentage of children in poverty ages 3-5 2 42.0 39.5 38.1 33.3 32.9 32.2 32.5 34.3
Age4
Less than one 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4
One 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5
Two 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.8
Three 45.8 46.1 43.9 36.5 35.3 38.2 38.7 41.4
Four 68.4 63.2 57.1 55.6 57.9 54.2 52.3 58.0
Five 4.5 3.5 3.8 2.5 2.0 1.6 1.4 1.7
Hispanic origin
Hispanic 43.4 39.1 35.3 30.6 30.4 31.4 33.3 35.0
Not Hispanic 39.5 38.3 38.2 33.7 31.4 32.6 32.1 33.9
Race
American Indian or Alaska Native 86.2 99.2 61.7 57.9 49.0 58.3 41.5 49.1
Asian 37.2 38.1 21.7 22.9 20.5 26.0 23.9 35.1
Black or African American 43.8 37.6 41.9 39.8 33.2 35.9 38.0 32.7
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 153.0 267.1 46.7 62.6 29.9 42.7 31.3 73.1
White 25.0 24.0 22.7 19.8 20.9 21.1 21.6 25.1
Biracial or multi-racial 54.6 76.3 81.1 43.6 34.7 42.7 52.2 50.0
1 Head Start includes enrollees of Migrant Head Start.

2 There are children enrolled who are not in poverty (nine percent in 2013-14) or for whom poverty status is not determined (20 percent in 2013-14, including children in foster care, homeless children, and children in families receiving TANF or Supplemental Security Income). However, the number of children in poverty in a given year is a close approximation of eligible children.

3 Enrollment characteristics represent how the child qualified for the program, and are not comprehensive. For instance, a child who is homeless may also have a parental income of between 100 and 130% of the federal poverty level, but would be included only in the homeless category. The remaining children qualified either because parental income was below the federal poverty line or because they were participating in SSI (disability) or TANF.

4 Percentage is based on the number of children in poverty of the given age, rather than ages 3 to 5.

Sources: Data on number and percent enrollment: The Administration for Children and Families, Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. {various years}. Head Start Program Information Report (PIR). Author. Poverty data for percentages: US Census Bureau. (2015). Current Population Survey: CPS table creator. Available at: http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html

 

Endnotes


[1]U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Head Start Impact Study: First year findings [Electronic Version]. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/impact_study/reports/first_yr_execsum/first_yr_execsum.pdf.

[2]Abbott-Shim, M., Lambert, R., & McCarty, F. (2003). A comparison of school readiness outcomes for children randomly assigned to a Head Start program and the program's wait list. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 8(2), 191-214.

[3]Bulgakov, D. (2003). Head Start attendance as a predictor of elementary school outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation. University of Toledo.

[4]Barnett, W.S., & Hustedt, J.T. (2005). Head Start's lasting benefits [Electronic Version]. Infants and Young Children, 18, 16-24. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/barnett_hustedt18_1.pdf.

[5]Lumeng, J. C., Kaciroti, N., Sturza, J., Krusky, A. M., Miller, A. L., Peterson, K. E., Lipton, R., & Reischi, T. M. (2015). Changes in body mass index associated with Head Start participation. Pediatrics, 135(2), e449 -e456.

[6]U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005), op. cit.

[7]Barnett, W.S., & Hustedt, J.T. (2005). Head Start's lasting benefits [Electronic Version]. Infants and Young Children, 18, 16-24. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/barnett_hustedt18_1.pdf.

[8]U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Op. cit.

[9]Aughinbaugh, A. (2001). Does Head Start yield long-term benefits. Journal of Human Resources, 36(4), 641-665.

[10]Lee, V.E., & Loeb, S. (1995). Where do Head Start attendees end up? One reason why preschool effects fade out [Electronic Version]. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 17, 62-82. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/15/6e/f7.pdf.

[11]Administration for Children and Families, Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. (2011). Policy clarifications on eligibility, recruitment, selection, enrollment and attendance. Available at: http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/standards/policy%20clarifications%20and%20faqs/i_pc_actual.htm

[12]Takanishi, R. (2004). Leveling the playing field: Supporting immigrant children from birth to eight [Electronic Version]. The Future of Children, 14, 61-79. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3d/cf/b0.pdf.

[13]Child Trends' original analyses of National Household Education Survey data.

[14]There are children enrolled in Head Start Programs who are not in poverty (eight percent in 2013-14) or for whom poverty status is not determined (21 percent in 2013-14, including children in foster care, homeless children, and children in families receiving TANF or Supplemental Security Income). However, the number of children in poverty in a given year is a close approximation of eligible children.

[15]Hispanics may be any race.

 

Suggested Citation:

Child Trends Databank. (2015). Head start. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=head-start

 

Last updated: March 2015

 

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