DataBank Indicator

Early School Readiness

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Compared with white or black children, Hispanic children are less likely to be able to recognize the letters of the alphabet, count to 20 or higher, or write their names before they start kindergarten. Black children are similar to white children on these measures, but are more likely than white children to be reading words in books.

Importance

School readiness, a multi-dimensional concept,[1] conveys important advantages. Children who enter school with early skills, such as a basic knowledge of math and reading, are more likely than their peers to experience later academic success,[2],[3] attain higher levels of education, and secure employment.[4] Absence of these and other skills may contribute to even greater disparities down the road. For example, one study found that gaps in math, reading, and vocabulary skills evident at elementary school entry explained at least half of the racial gap in high school achievement scores.[5]

As conceptualized by the National Education Goals Panel, school readiness encompasses five dimensions: (1) physical well-being and motor development; (2) social and emotional development; (3) approaches to learning; (4) language development (including early literacy); and (5) cognition and general knowledge.[6] The school readiness indicator reported on here includes four skills related to early literacy and cognitive development: a child’s ability to recognize letters, count to 20 or higher, write his or her first name, and read words in a book. While cognitive development and early literacy are important for children’s school readiness and early success in school, other areas of development, like health, social development, and engagement, may be of equal or greater importance.[7],[8],[9] However, although experts agree that social-emotional skills are critically important for school readiness, to date there are no nationally representative data in this area.

Trends

07_fig1The proportion of pre-kindergarten three- to six-year-old children able to demonstrate cognitive and early literacy skills has increased over time. Between 1993 and 2012, the share of children able to recognize all the letters of the alphabet increased from 21 to 38 percent; those able to count to 20 or higher increased from 52 to 68 percent; and the proportion able to write their names increased from 50 to 58 percent. While there are no data available before 1999, between 1999 and 2007 the proportion of young children who read words in a book more than doubled, from three to eight percent. By 2012, it had grown to 22 percent, although some of this increase may be due to a change in the survey wording.[i] (Figure 1)

Differences by Poverty Status

Young pre-kindergarten children living in poverty are much less likely to have cognitive and early literacy readiness skills than are children living above the poverty threshold. In 2007 (the latest data available), 21 percent of poor children ages three to six were able to recognize all 26 letters of the alphabet, compared with 35 percent living above the poverty threshold. (Appendix 1) While 49 percent of poor young children were able to count to 20 or higher, 67 percent of those living above poverty could do so. (Appendix 2) In the same year, 46 percent of poor children were able to write their names, compared with 64 percent of those living above poverty. (Appendix 3) In all measures of early school readiness, disparities by income level were greatest in 1999, but narrowed in 2007. For the measures, “recognizing all letters” and “counting to 20 or higher,” these disparities were narrower in 2007 than they were in 1993. For the measure “ability to write name,” the gap was greater in 2007 than in 1993. (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, and Appendix 3)

Differences by Gender

Although in 1999 young girls were significantly more likely than young boys to achieve on all measures except reading, by 2012, there were no significant differences by gender. (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3 and Appendix 4)

Differences by Parent’s Education Level

In general, children with more educated parents have better cognitive/literacy readiness skills. In 2012, among three- to six-year-old children (not yet enrolled in kindergarten) whose parents had not completed high school, 15 percent could recognize all letters of the alphabet, 38 percent could count to 20 or more, 37 percent could write their name, and 13 percent could read words in a book. These figures are between 46 and 142 percent lower than those for children whose parents had completed some college or a vocational program, and between 66 and 224 percent lower than for those whose parents obtained a bachelor’s degree. The gaps were greatest in letter recognition, and lowest in the child’s ability to write their name. (Figure 2)

Differences by Parent’s Home Language

In 2012, young children who had at least one parent whose home language was English were more likely to demonstrate school readiness skills than those who had no parents whose home language was English. For example, 48 percent of children whose parents did not speak English could count to 20 or higher, compared with 71 percent of those children who lived in a household with either two English-speaking parents, or with a single parent who was English-speaking, and 52 percent of children in households with two parents, only one of whom speaks English. (Appendix 2)

Differences by Race and Hispanic Origin[10]

07_fig3Overall, Hispanic children are less likely to demonstrate cognitive/literacy readiness skills than are white, black, or Asian/Pacific Islander children. For example, in 2012, 27 percent of Hispanic three- to six-year-olds could recognize all 26 letters of the alphabet, compared with 41 and 44 percent, respectively, of white and black children. Asian/Pacific Islander children had the highest rate of recognizing all the letters, at 58 percent. The abilities to count to 20 and to write their name showed a similar pattern by race, although on these measures of school readiness Asian and Pacific Islander children were similar to their white and black counterparts. (Figure 3)

Black children are more likely to read words in books than are white or Hispanic children. In 2012, 31 percent of black children, ages three to six, were reading, compared with 20 and 19 percent, respectively, of white and Hispanic children. No other differences by race or Hispanic origin were statistically significant. (Figure 3)

Differences by Age

As expected, the percentage of young children displaying these school readiness skills increases with age. In 2012, 25 percent of three-year-olds could recognize letters, 53 percent could count to 20 or more, 31 percent could write their name, and 12 percent could read words, compared to 58, 89, 87, and 39 percent, respectively, for five- to six-year-olds. While there have been gains on all measures since 1993, increases have been greater for younger children. (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3 and Appendix 4)

State and Local Estimates

While there are no strictly comparable state and local estimates for these indicators, many states have been tracking statewide school readiness. The recent National School Readiness Indicators Initiative assisted 17 states in selecting indicators to inform state-level public policy decisions, track progress and address issues affecting young children.[11] Key indicators of readiness for this initiative included the percent of children recognizing basic shapes at kindergarten entry, and the percent of children with age-appropriate fine motor skills, in addition to other indicators identified by the states. As of 2012, 15 states had defined the skills and abilities children should have at school entry, and implemented kindergarten entry assessments for the purpose of determining statewide levels of school readiness.[12] States implementing school readiness assessments evaluate children’s developmental progress across multiple domains and utilize measures that align with the states’ early learning guidelines.[13]

International Estimates

A number of countries are exploring indicators of school readiness. However, there are no comparable international estimates for the indicators identified here. Canada and Australia measure school readiness nationwide using the Early Development Instrument (EDI). This teacher-administered assessment instrument collects information about children’s developmental progress across multiple domains. Data can be disaggregated not only by region and community, but also by neighborhood, and can be used to map against demographic characteristics.[14] England uses the Early Years Foundation Stage assessment, for which teachers rate children in “the three prime areas which are most essential for children’s healthy development: communication and language; physical; and personal, social and emotional development,” as well as literacy, mathematics, understanding the world, and expressive arts and design.[15]

National Goals

School readiness has been a part of the national education dialogue since 1990, when the National Education Goals Panel established its first National Education Goal: “By the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn.”[16] To reach this goal, the Goals Panel created three objectives for families and communities: (1) children will have access to high quality preschool programs; (2) every parent will be a child’s first teacher; and (3) children will receive the health care, nutrition, and physical activities that they need to arrive at school healthy.[17]The Goals Panel also recognized that school readiness is about more than just the readiness of children; it also includes the readiness of schools to receive children with different backgrounds and capabilities, and community supports for children and families.[18]

In 2009, the Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge set goals for the improvement of early childhood education, including developing and using high-quality standards, effectively using assessment systems, and “understanding the status of children at kindergarten entry”.

Over the past 20 years, states have worked to meet the National Education and Race to the Top Goals. In the 2012-13 school year, 40 states and D.C. collectively invested 5.4 billion dollars in preschool programs for just 1.3 million three- and four-year-old children.[19] All states have established early learning guidelines for children ages birth to five.[20] In 2010, only seven states collected kindergarten readiness information, but in 2012 it had increased to 15, with more promised as part of the Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge grant.[21]

What Works to Make Progress on This Indicator

The following research briefs provide summaries of
interventions that are known to be effective:

Also, see Child Trends’ LINKS database
(“Lifecourse Interventions to Nurture Kids Successfully”), for reviews of many
rigorously evaluated programs, including the following which have been shown to
be effective at improving early school readiness:

Related Indicators

Definition

This report looks at parent reports of children’s competence in four cognitive and early literacy school readiness skills: (1) recognizing all letters; (2) counting to 20 or higher; (3) writing his or her name; and (4) reading words in books. Children ages three to six who are not yet in kindergarten are included in the analysis. In 2012, the question determining whether children were reading was modified slightly, limiting comparability with earlier data. (See footnote 1 for more details)

Data Sources

All data for 2001-2005, 2012; parental language, race/Hispanic origin, and maternal employment for 1999; and family type for 2007: Child Trends’ analysis of the National Household Education Survey.

All other data for 2007: O’Donnell, K. (2008) Parents’ Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008051

All other data for 1993 and 1999: Chandler, K., Nord, C. W., Lennon, J., & Liu, B. (1999). Statistics in Brief: Home Literacy Activities & Signs of Children’s Emerging Literacy, 1993 and 1999. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2000026

Raw Data Source

National Household Education Survey

http://nces.ed.gov/nhes/

 

Appendix 1 – Among 3- to 6-Year-Old Children1 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten, Percentage Who Can Recognize all Letters of the Alphabet: Selected Years, 1993-2012

1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Total 21 24 23 26 32 38
Age
3 years old 11 15 12 16 17 25
4 years old 28 28 29 31 38 46
5-6 years old1 36 44 39 45 59 58
Sex
Male 19 21 19 26 31 39
Female 23 27 27 26 33 38
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 23 26 24 29 36 41
Black, non-Hispanic 18 25 22 24 38 44
Hispanic 10 15 13 16 15 27
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 37 46 42 43 58
Other 22 27 27 25 35 38
Parent’s language at home
Parents speak English2 22 26 25 27 35 41
One of two parents speak English 52 29
Not English 9 7 5 15 11 24
Parent’s highest education4
Less than High School 8 7 10 11 15
High School Diploma or Equivalent 17 17 14 16 19 28
Vocational Education or Some College 23 25 23 28 28 37
Bachelor’s Degree 31 35 31 34 39 49
Graduate/Professional Training or Degree 39 40 37 34 48 57
1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Mother’s employment status3
Employed4 23 24 24 27 33 42
Employed less than 35 hours per week 25 22 28 36 41
Unemployed 17 16 17 18 16 35
Not in labor force 18 25 23 24 31 35
Family Type
Two parents5 22 26 25 27 33 40
None or one parent 18 19 17 21 27 34
Poverty status
Above poverty threshold 24 28 35
Below poverty threshold 12 10 21
Locale of child’s household
City 31 37
Suburban 36 42
Town 26 32
Rural 29 35
– Data not available or based on fewer than 20 cases.

11993 and 1999 estimates do not include 6-year-olds.

31993 estimates refer to Mother’s home language. Later estimates refer to both parents or a single parent.

3Excludes those children did not have a mother (birth, adoptive, step, or foster) residing in their household) and also did not have a female respondent on the telephone. In 2012, when the child had two mothers, the employment status refers to the first one mentioned.

41993 estimates do not distinguish whether the mother works full or part time.

5Includes same-sex parents in 2007 and 2012.

Sources: All data for 2001-2005, 2012; parental language, race/Hispanic origin, and maternal employment for 1999; and family type for 2007: Child Trends’ analysis of the National Household Education Survey. All other data for 2007: O’Donnell, K. (2008) Parents’ Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008051. All other data for 1993 and 1999: Chandler, K., Nord, C. W., Lennon, J., & Liu, B. (1999). Statistics in Brief: Home Literacy Activities & Signs of Children’s Emerging Literacy, 1993 and 1999. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2000026

Appendix 2 – Among 3- to 6-Year-Old Children1 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten, Percentage Who Can Count to 20 or Higher: Selected Years, 1993-2012

1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Total 52 57 57 61 63 68
Age
3 years old 37 41 39 46 47 53
4 years old 62 67 68 71 73 78
5-6 years old1 78 81 83 82 85 89
Sex
Male 49 54 53 59 61 67
Female 56 60 61 64 65 69
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 56 61 61 65 69 72
Black, non-Hispanic 53 60 58 69 69 73
Hispanic 32 41 39 42 42 57
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 64 61 66 76 73
Other 49 57 61 64 64 68
Parent’s language at home
Parents speak English2 55 60 60 65 68 71
One of two parents speak English 38 36 50 77 52
Not English 24 24 26 35 29 48
Parent’s highest education4
Less than High School 30 36 29 31 31 38
High School Diploma or Equivalent 48 48 47 50 50 64
Vocational Education or Some College 59 60 59 66 62 69
Bachelor’s Degree 68 73 70 68 71 77
Graduate/Professional Training or Degree 68 73 72 74 80 83
1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Mother’s employment status3
Employed4 57 60 40 64 67 75
Employed less than 35 hours per week 60 39 67 66 71
Unemployed 41 53 53 49 44 59
Not in labor force 49 54 48 57 60 60
Family Type
Two parents5 54 58 58 63 65 68
None or one parent 49 54 51 56 58 67
Poverty status
Above poverty threshold 57 62 67
Below poverty threshold 41 39 49
Locale of child’s household
City 60 67
Suburban 67 71
Town 64 64
Rural 61 67
– Data not available or based on fewer than 20 cases.

11993 and 1999 estimates do not include 6-year-olds.

31993 estimates refer to Mother’s home language. Later estimates refer to both parents or a single parent.

3Excludes those children did not have a mother (birth, adoptive, step, or foster) residing in their household) and also did not have a female respondent on the telephone. In 2012, when the child had two mothers, the employment status refers to the first one mentioned.

41993 estimates do not distinguish whether the mother works full or part time.

5Includes same-sex parents in 2007 and 2012.

Sources: All data for 2001-2005, 2012; parental language, race/Hispanic origin, and maternal employment for 1999; and family type for 2007: Child Trends’ analysis of the National Household Education Survey. All other data for 2007: O’Donnell, K. (2008) Parents’ Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008051. All other data for 1993 and 1999: Chandler, K., Nord, C. W., Lennon, J., & Liu, B. (1999). Statistics in Brief: Home Literacy Activities & Signs of Children’s Emerging Literacy, 1993 and 1999. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2000026

 

Appendix 3 – Among 3- to 6-Year-Old Children1 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten, Percentage Who Can Write Their Own Name: Selected Years, 1993-2012

1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Total 50 51 53 59 60 58
Age
3 years old 22 24 23 32 34 31
4 years old 70 70 73 78 76 77
5-6 years old1 84 87 90 92 89 87
Sex
Male 47 47 47 57 56 56
Female 53 56 58 61 64 60
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 52 54 55 60 64 63
Black, non-Hispanic 45 50 52 62 58 56
Hispanic 42 43 43 51 50 51
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 61 61 69 66 61
Other 52 51 53 60 56 54
Parent’s language at home
Parents speak English2 51 54 55 60 62 60
One of two parents speak English 36 46 55 62 56
Not English 38 33 33 51 46 45
Parent’s highest education4
Less than High School 40 32 35 48 41 37
High School Diploma or Equivalent 48 49 47 53 44 57
Vocational Education or Some College 51 52 57 60 60 54
Bachelor’s Degree 58 61 58 62 68 67
Graduate/Professional Training or Degree 59 64 60 67 72 73
1993 1999 2001 2005 2007 2012
Mother’s employment status3
Employed4 52 54 56 63 64 62
Employed less than 35 hours per week 54 55 62 60 59
Unemployed 46 41 47 53 42 54
Not in labor force 47 50 48 55 58 52
Family Type
Two parents5 51 53 54 60 62 58
None or one parent 47 48 48 57 53 57
Poverty status
Above poverty threshold 53 56 64
Below poverty threshold 41 37 46
Locale of child’s household
City 55 56
Suburban 63 60
Town 60 56
Rural 62 58
– Data not available or based on fewer than 20 cases.

11993 and 1999 estimates do not include 6-year-olds.

31993 estimates refer to Mother’s home language. Later estimates refer to both parents or a single parent.

3Excludes those children did not have a mother (birth, adoptive, step, or foster) residing in their household) and also did not have a female respondent on the telephone. In 2012, when the child had two mothers, the employment status refers to the first one mentioned.

41993 estimates do not distinguish whether the mother works full or part time.

5Includes same-sex parents in 2007 and 2012.

Sources: All data for 2001-2005, 2012; parental language, race/Hispanic origin, and maternal employment for 1999; and family type for 2007: Child Trends’ analysis of the National Household Education Survey. All other data for 2007: O’Donnell, K. (2008) Parents’ Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008051. All other data for 1993 and 1999: Chandler, K., Nord, C. W., Lennon, J., & Liu, B. (1999). Statistics in Brief: Home Literacy Activities & Signs of Children’s Emerging Literacy, 1993 and 1999. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2000026

 

Appendix 4 – Among 3- to 6-Year-Old Children1 Not Yet Enrolled in Kindergarten, Percentage Who Read Words in Books: Selected Years, 1999-2012

1999 2001 2005 2007 20126
Total 3 4 5 8 22
Age
3 years old 2 1 2 2 12
4 years old 5 5 6 9 27
5-6 years old1 5 11 17 23 39
Sex          
Male 3 3 5 9 21
Female 3 5 6 7 23
Race/Hispanic origin
White, non-Hispanic 3 4 6 8 20
Black, non-Hispanic 5 5 6 16 31
Hispanic 3 3 3 19
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 8 27
Other 6 23
Parent’s language at home
Parents speak English2 3 4 6 9 24
One of two parents speak English
Not English 3 13
Parent’s highest education4
Less than High School 4 13
High School Diploma or Equivalent 2 3 21
Vocational Education or Some College 3 5 7 8 21
Bachelor’s Degree 4 4 5 10 23
Graduate/Professional Training or Degree 7 7 8 12 30
1999 2001 2005 2007 20126
Mother’s employment status3
Employed4 4 5 6 9 21
Employed less than 35 hours per week 4 6 8 25
Unemployed 21
Not in labor force 2 5 5 8 20
Family Type
Two parents5 4 4 6 8 21
None or one parent 3 3 4 9 24
Poverty status
Above poverty threshold 9
Below poverty threshold 6
Locale of child’s household
City 7 24
Suburban 8 21
Town 9 19
Rural 10 22
– Data not available or based on fewer than 20 cases.

11993 and 1999 estimates do not include 6-year-olds.

21993 estimates refer to Mother’s home language. Later estimates refer to both parents or a single parent.

3Excludes those children did not have a mother (birth, adoptive, step, or foster) residing in their household) and also did not have a female respondent on the telephone. In 2012, when the child had two mothers, the employment status refers to the first one mentioned.

41993 estimates do not distinguish whether the mother works full or part time.

5Includes same-sex parents in 2007 and 2012.

6Questions to determine reading were changed slightly in 2012, so they are not strictly comparable to previous years.

Sources: All data for 1999-2005, 2012, and family type for 2007: Child Trends’ analysis of the National Household Education Survey. All other data for 2007: O’Donnell, K. (2008) Parents’ Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008051.

Endnotes

[i] Before 2012, respondents were asked “Is (CHILD) able to read story books on (his/her) own now?” with a follow-up question “Does (CHILD) actually read the words written in the book, or does (he/she) look at the book and pretend to read?” While the follow-up question remained the same in 2012, it was asked of all respondents who answered “yes” to “Does this child ever read or pretend to read storybooks on his/her own?”


[1]Ackerman, D. J., and Barnett, W. S. (2005). Prepared for kindergarten: What does “readiness” mean? New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. Available at http://nieer.org/resources/policyreports/report5.pdf.

[2]Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., and Claessens, A. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446. Available at: http://www.apa.org/journals/releases/dev4361428.pdf

[3]
Hair, E., Halle, T., Terry-Humen, E., Lavelle, B., and Calkins, J. (2006). Children’s school readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to academic, health, and social outcomes in first grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 431-454. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends-2006_09_12_OP_ECLSKReadiness.pdf

[4]Rouse, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., and McLanahan, S. (2005). School readiness: Closing racial and ethnic gaps: Introducing the issue. Future of Children, 15(1). Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/15_01_FullJournal.pdf

[5]Phillips, M., Crouse, J., and Ralph, J. (1998). Does the black-white test score gap widen after children enter school? in C. Jencks and M. Phillips, (eds.)The Black-White Test Score Gap, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute, pp. 229-272.

[6]National Education Goals Panel.(1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel. Available at: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/reports/child-ea.htm

[7]Snow, K.L. (2007). Integrative Views of the domains of child function. in Pianta, R.C., Cox, M.J., & Snow, K.L. (Eds.) School readiness and the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

[8]Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111-127.

[9]Vandivere, S., Pitzer, L., Halle, T., & Hair, E. (2004). Indicators of early school success and child well-being. Published in Ready Schools Reference Guide. W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Available at: http://www.wkkf.org/default.aspx?tabid=101&CID=3&CatID=3&ItemID=5000284&NID=20&LanguageID=0

[10]Hispanic children may be any race. Estimates for whites, blacks, and Asians or Pacific Islanders in this report do not include Hispanics.

[11]National School Readiness Indicators Initiative. (2005). Findings from the 17 State School Readiness Initiative: A 17 State Partnership. Available at: http://www.gettingready.org

[12]Center on Ehancing Early Learning Outcomes. (2014). Fast fact: Information and resources on developing state policy on Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA). Available at: http://ceelo.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/KEA_Fast_Fact_Feb_2014.pdf

[13]Daily, S., Burkhauser, M., & Halle, T. (2010). A review of school readiness practices in the states: Early learning guidelines and assessments. Child Trends Early Childhood Highlights series. Retrieved from www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Child_Trends-2010_06_18_ECH_SchoolReadiness.pdf

[15]UK Department for Education (2014). Early Years Foundation Stage Profile results in England, 2013/14. Statistical First Release. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/364021/SFR39_2014_Text.pdf

[16]National Education Goals Panel. (1997). Special early childhood report, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 3. Available at: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/reports/spcl.pdf

[17]Ibid.

[18]National Education Goals Panel (1998). Ready schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/reports/readysch.pdf

[19]Barnett, S. W., Carolan, M. E., Squires, J. H., & Brown, K. C. (2013). The state of preschool 2013: Preschool yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institutes for Early Education Research. Available at: http://nieer.org/sites/nieer/files/yearbook2013.pdf .

[21]Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes. (2014). Op. cit.

 

Suggested Citation:

Child Trends Databank. (2015). Early School Readiness. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=early-school-readiness

 

Last updated: July 2015

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